Public Information Office
09 March 2007
USEP, MCI set to hold confab on indigenous higher education
The University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP) in partnership with Minority Care International (MCI) shall host a national conference entitled, “Indigenous Higher Education in the Philippines: Focus on Mindanao” on March 12 and 13 at the USEP Social Hall, Obrero, Davao City.
Being one of the institutions that advocate for an educational program for the indigenous peoples (IPs), USEP teamed up with MCI, a non-profit organization exclusively for charitable purposes and designed to carry out its charitable activities in the areas of research and policy development; survey community resources and needs; and advocate policy to assist deprived minorities.
Among the objectives of the two-day conference are as follows: to share the best practices and lessons learned by HEIs in Mindanao in the areas of research, instruction and service to the IPs; to relate the experiences of the IPs in Mindanao with those in the United States; and, to recommend policies and programs on research, instruction and service to IPs as institutions of higher learning.
The national conference will be a gathering of people from different sectors representing Agricultural Technology, Teacher’s Education, Research, Extension, and IP scholars. It will feature the studies of Dr. Linda Kay Mizell from Colin County Community College, Texas, U.S.A.
Poster presentations by participating organizations that showcase various experiences with IP education are part of the highlights of the activity. (CFMurillo)
Indigenous Higher Education in the Philippines: Focus on Mindanao
March 12 – 13, 2007
University of Southeastern Philippines
Davao City, Philippines
Day 1, March 12, 2007, Monday
8:30-9:00 Opening Ceremony
Entrance of Colors – USEP ROTC Cadets
Invocation and the Philippine National Anthem – USEP Chorale
Words of Welcome – Dr. Julieta I. Ortiz, University President
Conference Objectives – Dr. Edna H. Jalotjot, Conference Director
9:00-9:30 The Status and Future Directions of Indigenous Higher Education in the United States: Dr. Linda Kay Mizell, Collin Community College
9:30 - 10:00 Open Forum
10:15-10:45 IP Curriculum Development: The Institute of Indigenous
: Ms. Norma Gonos, Director, IIPE
10:45-11:15 Panel Reaction: Ms. Juana Paula Subalan – Pamulaan Center
Ms. Jeneth Layocan – Pamulaan Center, USEP
11:15 – 12:00 Open Forum - Ms. Wendolyn Lugayao, Moderator
1:00-1:30 Cultural Presentation – Pangkat Silayan, USEP Dance Troupe
1:30-2:30 Internationalizing the Curriculum of Indigenous
Higher Education– Dr. Linda Kay Mizell
2:30-3:30 Panel Reaction
- Dr. Antonio Tacardon, Dean, College of Education
University of Southern Mindanao
- Mr. Benjamin Abadiano, President, Assisi Foundation
- Dr. Wilfredo Mamocod, Chair, University Curriculum Committee
3:30-4:00 Open Forum – Ms. Mercedes Alan, Moderator
4:00-5:00 Trip to Pamulaan Center (Optional)
Officer-of-the-Day: Ms. Gladys Ortiz
Day 2, March 13, 2007, Tuesday
8:30-9:00 Service Learning and Its Implications to Indigenous Higher Education – Dr. Linda Kay Mizell
9:00:9:45 Panel Reaction:
- Mr. Kurt Anthony Diaz, Faculty, Cor Jesu College
- Dr. Danilo Pacoy, Director, Extension Division, USEP
9:45-10:15 Open Forum
10:30-11:00 Pamulaan Center: The USEP Experience of Indigenous Higher Education – Video Presentation
11:00- 12:30 Presentation of Indigenous Higher Education Experiences
- Dr. Jovita Felongco, Notre Dame of Marbel University
- Dr. Remedios Barreto, Bukidnon State College
- Mr. Dionisio Lera, Davao Oriental State College of Science and
- Fr. Albert Alejo, SJ – Mindanawon Initiatives for Cultural Dialogue
12:30-1:00 Open Forum, Ms. Patricia Elbanbuena, Moderator
1:30-2:30 Discussion by Interest Groups
2:30-3:00 Plenary Session – Dr. Edna Jalotjot, Moderator
3:15-4:00 Closing Ceremony
Cultural Presentation – Pamulaan Scholars
Closing Remarks – Mr. Aland Mizell, Minority Care International
Exit of Colors – USEP ROTC Cadets
Officer-the-Day: Ms. Juse Lyn Pabuaya
By: Dr. Edna Jalotjot
Education for All (EFA)
The Education for All movement is a global commitment to provide quality basic education for all children, youth and adults. The movement was launched at the World Conference on Education for All in 1990.
DAKAR Framework for Action
Ten years later, with many countries far from having reached this goal, the international community met again in Dakar, Senegal and affirmed their commitment to achieving Education for All by the year 2015. They identified six key education goals which aim to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015.
(1) expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and
education,especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;
|(2) ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult
circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;
(3) ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes;
(4) achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;
(5) eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality;
(6) improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes
Role of Higher Education Institutions in EFA
Actions by higher education institutions have the potential to support Education for All through research, capacity-building, and service to the community.
Objectives of the Conference
- To share best practices and lessons learned of Higher Education Institutions in Mindanao, Philippines in the areas of research, instructions and service to the Indigenous Peoples.
- To relate the Mindanao experience to that of the experiences of Indigenous Peoples in the United States.
- To recommend policies and programs on research, instructions and service to Indigenous Peoples as institutions of Higher Learning.
Minority Education in Institutions of Higher Learning: Towards
Developing a Framework of Indigenous Higher Education
In the Philippines
Purpose: a National Forum to discuss the shared vision with Indigenous Peoples of
Self- Determination through higher education.
Foundation: Actions by Higher Education Institutions have the potential to support
Education for All (EFA) through research, capacity building and service to
- the articulation of indigenous epistemology (ways of knowing, education, philosophy)
- protection and enhancement of indigenous spiritual beliefs, culture and languages
- advancing the social, economic and political status of Indigenous Peoples that contribute to the well being of indigenous communities
II. Capacity Building
- indigenous higher education initiatives and systems
- institution building to move towards excellence in teacher education that reflect indigenous cultures and aspirations
- production of pedagogical materials aligned with indigenous culture
III. Service to the Community
- role of universities in conceiving and implementing projects towards the promotion of educational rights of Indigenous Peoples
- mobilization of university students at the community level to promote EFA goals
HIGHER EDUCATION FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
IN THE UNITED STATES: brokering a Cultural Intermediary
By: Dr. Linda Kay Mizell
In the last two decades, educators in the United States gradually have shifted their policies and practices in higher education to reflect sensitivity to the culture, economics, and politics of American Indians and Alaska Natives. Attention to those in the nation’s lowest level of educational attainment—the Native population—emerged from indigenes and nonnatives. By considering both the context and traditions of students’ local communities and their need to live in a twenty-first century global environment, administrators, academics, and researchers in post-secondary institutions help students prepare for higher education and enable them to become more academically equipped and more professionally successful. Policies that value the multifaceted and evolving identity of indigenous students and practices that aim at a just and equitable educational system ensure both greater access and graduation; culturally relevant curricula and programs; preservation of heritage, language and traditional knowledge; and better citizens in the tribal community and in the national and international arenas. Partnerships between the tribes, families, and government leaders on the one hand and colleges and universities on the other make all concerned equal shareholders in the students’ success. The hope is that indigenous youth can then take on the challenges of endemic issues facing their people. This interdisciplinary and ethnographic approach to higher education seeks to alter policies and practices to achieve greater inclusion for indigenous students in mainstream institutions and enrichment in their tribal institutions of higher learning. Both seek to graduate students who work for local economic development and social change in a global context of solidarity networks, transnational non-government organizations, international markets, and world-wide technology. In a world of increasingly complex global processes, institutions of higher learning should prepare students for universal discourse and skills while retaining their interconnectedness to the local knowledge and culture.
The term “indigenous people” describes heirs of political, social and cultural communities whose members are descendants of the likely first occupiers of a territory usually who self-identify and desire to transmit their ethnic differences (de Verannes 309-10). Often they have never completely surrendered or abandoned their sovereignty, so that, for example, the U.S. government holds 55.7 million acres of land in trust for the 2.1 million American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians (Bureau 1). Some argue that they are not defined by race, but by a relationship grounded in international law and in the sovereignty of Indian nations over their landbase, even though 61.9% now live off the reservations in the mainland U.S. Today there are 561 federally recognized American Indian entities with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) providing schooling for 48,000 (Bureau 1). By virtue of their minority status, indigenous people often slip into the class of underprivileged, one affecting their identity, language, and knowledge and undermining their rights in these areas. Consequently, full participation in the body politic, benefits of good health and nutrition, and opportunity for upward mobility escape them. To address their human rights, The Preamble of the United Nations Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of 1993 recognizes the “need to respect and promote the inherent rights and characteristics of indigenous peoples . . . which derive from their political, economic and social structure.” Coolangatta Proclamation of Indigenous Education recommends processes for ensuring those rights (Appendix D).
Retaining a heritage language remains seminal to the rights of indigenous people. A case in point surfaces in a study of Australian aboriginals. Out of the original 250 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages on the continent, only one third are spoken today and many by only a few elders. In general policies affecting indigenous people assume that indigenous populations would disappear or be absorbed into an emerging national culture of the state, unless key players made efforts to preserve them. Reflecting this assumption, the general trend in education in the U.S. shows a change, so that impressive gains in the preservation of languages and cultures are occurring.
The last two decades have signaled hope for improvement in indigenous higher education. Of the 1.4 million bachelor’s degrees conferred in the U.S in 2004-2005, Native Indian/Alaska Natives received approximately 10,000, and the number has grown by an average rate of 4.5%, although compared to 6.4 for Hispanics, since 1995 (“A Snapshot” 1). Still Native Americans in the U.S. face challenges and social problems such as high unemployment, poverty, higher than average disease and death rates, excessive alcoholism, and high suicide rates (Ferrin 1). Native Americans experience the nation’s lowest educational attainment rate. In 2003, the high dropout rate from high school of 22.8% compared to 15.4% for the total populations spoke to these difficulties, as well as the 9.9% who received a bachelor’s degree compared to 17.9% of the general population (“A Snapshot” 1). Further, only 4.4% of Native Americans have a bachelor’s degree. Negotiation between the sovereign nation with its cultural identity and mainstream life with its economic and educational advantages remains a skill indigenous higher education must teach. By embracing culturally appropriate programs and mechanisms to usher students into the larger world, institutions prepare indigenes to participate in the civic life on every level. Local traditions and transnational amplification of knowledge combine to provide students with a rich, complex foundation for life.
A matrix of two world domains—local and global—addresses student learning in terms of indigenous “rights” and higher education. The student balanced between these two worlds of self-image as an indigenous person and of a world image finds an anomie between the two (Stairs “Self”116). The local embodies the traditional culture of indigenous peoples. For Native Americans cultural values which shape the self-identity and cultural identity include spirituality, bilingualism, biculturalism, kinship, a sense of belonging to a community, and the cultural resilience of individuals, families and tribes (HeavyRunner 32). However, the challenges of reservation life call for dramatic solutions. These challenges include staggering unemployment rates ranging from 45-to 90% (AIHEC), high morbidity rates, the breakdown of the nuclear family, domestic violence, drug abuse, a suicide rate more than double that of other racial or ethnic minorities, an extremely high rate of deaths from alcohol, and an increasing number of single-parent households, an already high figure (Heavyrunner 29, Littlejohn 486). These concerns of poverty and family place a heavy burden on indigenous students.
The global domain changes daily. Expansion in international trade has led to a development of “multinational enterprises” and “transnational corporations.” On one hand, the multinational corporation refers to one that is headquartered in a nation but operates in several countries, and, on the other hand, transnational corporation refers to one that is no longer tied to the nation of origin but is mobile ready to exploit any state as long as the affiliation is in its interests (Miyoshi 88-89). The move toward transnationalization is not just American but global. In this seemingly borderless world, global transportation has made the division of labor across borders commonplace, and globally manufactured products gain recognition from brand name, not country of origin. In view of this transnational economic power and culture, the fate of those who are not equipped to meet the demands of a globalized world may be that they become trapped by nativism, an isolation inside one’s locale denying active participation in other contexts. The following matrix addresses the two domains of the local and the global in the rights of indigenous people to identity, language, and knowledge and in their access to higher education, native teachers, culturally sensitive programs, and service infused into academics.
Indigenous Higher Education
The ability to negotiate between the inside and outside cultures signals one sign of an educated youth. Often conflict arises, however, between these two obligations. The role of the state determines citizenship, controls currency, imposes law, protects public health, provides general education, maintains security, and guides the national economy through taxation (Miyoshi 92), but certain classes in the state become more privileged while others become displaced. The global effect of industrial production and distribution across national borders compounds the gap between the privileged and the underprivileged, causing political and economic inequality. Because of the long-term struggle between tribal sovereignty and state powers, the Meriam Report in 1970 suggested nurturing “places of differences” in a democracy that permitted self-determination particularly in the area of higher education (Lomawaima 294). Because of the reality of cultural capital, however, some literature on Native American higher education finds that social integration in which the indigenes identify with the majority population and have a contextual identification of the self as being able to compete with others contribute to academic success (Kerbo 1279). On the continuum between an entirely traditional, local identity and a fully assimilated or acculturated one, biculturally integrated students retain and gain their identity by choice. The international community can be party, however, to granting basic freedoms and human rights to indigenous people, not through constitutional provisions or safeguards, but through obligations on the part of the states (Sucharitkul 30). Rather than globalization imposing its outside world on the local domain, it should bring to bear all the resources of the larger domain to better understand the problems encountered by indigenous people and allow them to join in those solutions as well as those for world problems.
Indigenous students may question their cultural identity in light of educational and economical globalization. Identity is generally thought of as a common origin or shared characteristics with another person or group, leading to solidarity and allegiance. Cultural identity reflects values, beliefs, and worldviews. Identity is multifaceted and evolving. It may refer to race, ethnicity, cultural identity, tribal identity, acculturation, enculturation, bicultural identity, multicultural identity, or some other form (Pewewardy, “Renewing” 5). It is complex in that it may refer to, in the case of indigenous people in the U.S., American Indians, Indians, Indigenous, Aboriginal, or Original Americans, Native Americans, Amerindian, or First Nations among other terms (Pewewardy, “Renewing” 6). However, it may also refer to tribes, designated one name by those outside the tribe and another by those inside, by the commonly known name or by the original tribal name, such as Sioux or Lakota, Navajo or Dine, Winnebago or Ho-Chunk, and Chippewa or Aishinaabe. A constructivist approach sees meaning as constructed through language, so that the terms American Indian, Native American, or First Nations not only reflect but also shape identity. According to Hilary N. Weaver, “Identity is shaped, in part, by recognition, absence of recognition or misrecognition by others, often with misrecognition causing imprisonment in a false identity” (243). It ought not to be an oppositional ethnic identity such as the poor or the oppressed but should be granted “rhetorical sovereignty” (Pewewardy “Renaming,” 8, 12). A poignant story entitled “Story about the Big Game,” whose original storytellers are unknown, comments on the difficulty in finding a contemporary indigenous identity (Appendix A).
Native Americans assume a cultural identity in different ways; for example, for some a sub-tribal identity such as a clan affiliation is primary, but for others it is the region like the Northern Plains or the Great Lakes. Their identity depends on the context of the inquirer. Hilary Weaver, a Lakota and a professor of sociology, carefully explains the complexity of indigenous identity. For those on the reservation another may be of “mixed-blood,” those from another reservation hear “from Pine Ridge,” those asking about tribal affiliation are told “Lakota,” or non-Indians may learn an individual is an “American Indian” (Weaver 243). Identity combines self-identification with community and external identification. Self-identification is central to identity, although identity may change or be rediscovered, yet it ultimately involves a degree of choice although the choice is affected by physical appearance. Social, economic, and political factors influence whether the Native identity is embraced or rejected; for example, in rejecting assimilation, a Navajo or Ute growing up outside the reservation may assert his nativeness by dropping out of school to resist the domination (244). Community identification links people to “sacred traditions, traditional homelands, and a shared history as indigenous people” (245). Convention, policy, and law may form identity boundaries. Because of their sovereignty in the U.S., tribes have the right to regulate membership, such as a recent case in which Seminoles voted to exclude former slaves from their tribe. Cultural identity exists in contrast to surrounding communities and within communities. Navajos, for example, may follow the traditional, Native American Church, or Christian form of healing, a reflection of identity and self-worth (245). External Identification refers to definitions from a nonnative perspective, such as the federal government, which may call into question the authenticity of the identity of a person who is claiming rights to tribal lands, or one who has not enrolled in the tribe for some reason (246). Stereotypes or popular notions of identity also influence identity. The question becomes is one a member of the tribe by self-assertion, by identification based on enrollment, by ability to speak a language, or by another measure. Many indigenous people have tenuous relations with their community because they went to a boarding school, or were in interracial adoptions or in foster care, for example. The federal government uses blood quantum to define Native American identity.
Identity should be assessed and not assumed. Identity is on a continuum from traditional to assimilate with integrated/ bicultural in the center. Many measure identity in terms of acculturation into a dominant society. In the end, identity is how Indians consider themselves. Internalized oppression readily appears among indigenous people with traditionalists believing the progressives are “less Indian,” while the progressives see the traditionalists as being backwards. The “mixed heritage” may see traditionalists as uncivilized or backwards. Skin color and phenotype cause one of the most prominent challenges of indigenous people in higher education because some Native people make assumptions based on physical appearance that result in ostracism. Also, a well-founded suspicion faults those who claim a Native heritage, such as New Age spiritualists or those seeking financial or territorial benefits, but have no connection to an indigenous community. The accusation of not being Indian enough is seen in the bumper sticker FBI-Full Blooded Indian or among “identity police” who accuse others because of the wrong religion, the wrong politics, or the wrong label for themselves, or they do not have the right skin color (Weaver 252). Indigenous people badger indigenous people probably because of insecurity about identity and sometimes become their own worst enemy in attempting to guard against cultural appropriation. Arlene Stairs posits the Inuit model of identity for integrating the multidimensionality of the self-image and the world-image. In her view, Inummarik identity progresses based on “becoming a most genuine person,” the value of building and rebuilding of relationships, in other words an active process that forges the individual and collective levels (Stairs, “Self-Image” 117). She offers an alternative to the egocentric Western view of self in the Inuit process of grounding or becoming a mature person in relationship to the community and to the environment. Autonomy gives way to ecocentrism, so that the paradoxical notions of mind-world and individual-collective are reconciled (Stairs 123). Ecocentrism, in this view, ties identity to the earth.
A national movement is attempting to revitalize heritage languages because at the current rate of loss, most of the native language could be gone by 2050 (Eichstaedt 28). Out of the 506 tribes in North America with 300 original languages (Lomawaima and McCarty 296), only 200 distinct languages are still spoken, but some, such as Hualapai with only 1500 speakers, are dying (McCarty and Watahornigle 315). Only 20 native languages are being transmitted to the next generation (Krauss 9). Consequently, “language reclamation and maintenance are thus elemental to self-determination” because “heritage language loss is a concrete tear in the web of family life—a crisis of identity and of whether children will, in fact, be ‘lost,’ disconnected from words and worlds of their forebears” (Lomawaima and McCarty 296). Because pressures on families to speak mainstream English fail to address the crisis, schools must aid in the solution. In the case of Hualapai, elders and academic linguists developed a practical orthography and introduced a bilingual/bicultural program into New Mexico that has had success. Seeing indigenous speakers as a valued commodity, the community-based program offers linguistic renewal. In California a language renewal initiative has implemented master-apprentice programs to save the 50 indigenous languages with none spoken as a mother tongue at this point (McCarty and Watahornigle 319). Reclamation and maintenance of heritage languages revitalize indigenous cultures that otherwise would be lost. The Oklahoma University offers the study of Kiowa from language, stories, and songs and thereby perpetuates the culture. One graduate student admits she was taught that English was the superior language, but now is relearning the language of her grandparents. This reconnection addresses the problem of the dying oral tradition, which among the Northern Arapahos has resulted in the dissolution of tribal cohesion and a discontinuity between the younger and older generations.
Universities that offer workshops or courses with native speakers augment and preserve a culture that would otherwise be lost when the language is no longer spoken. One article on negotiating the culture in indigenous schools suggests that language extends beyond the words to include the making of meaning through narratives, metaphors, silences, language patterns, and ideational or meaning systems (Stairs “Cultural Negotiation,” 161-164). Recognizing this correlation, the Ke Kula Kaiapuni school in Hawaii offers immersion in the Kaiapuni language after consulting with the Maori in New Zealand about preservation of their language (Eichstaedt 29). One educator there said that when the language dies, so do the people because through the native language they tell their stories and history. At the Brigham Young University-Hawai’I, a Hawaiian Studies program includes four years of language and a Teacher Education division that requires student teaching in language immersion schools as part of their goal of making language and culture available to all ethnicities (Benham, “The Story” 12, 14). Michigan State University offers courses in Ojibwe language beginning with introductory courses, moving to advanced, and then having a permanent position for a language instructor (Krouse 220). A university can provide training and technical expertise, workshops for tribal communities, and native teacher education and certification.
An interesting controversy, however, arose in the Peruvian highlands when activists attempted to implement indigenous language training. Parents mobilized against the activists believing that only by learning Spanish could their children ascend the social ladder. Yet, from this confrontation emerged a movement to train indigenous intellectuals with indigenes producing scholarly work in both languages (Garcia 73). Scholars and activists found that advocacy for linguistic rights overlaps with advocacy for culture, territory, and full civic participation (75). Interestingly, however, sometimes those fighting for language rights do so not for the cause of speaking their indigenous language but for the acquisition of a second language that would allow them to have upward mobility. Thus, the social reality of speaking the national language versus the desire to rescue or revive the indigenous language must be weighed for the students before educators can make decisions about improving students’ political and economic status through education. While the issue of imposition of a national language raises concern, the reality of gaining greater social accessibility through English, Spanish, or other global languages makes it necessary for universities to address the best polices and practices for indigenous students in a world of linguistic hierarchies. Languages signal both socioeconomic and ethnic identities, because language, class, and prestige connect, making the right to both native language and dominant language a challenge. Thus, the “internationalization of indigenous identity” relies on “bilingual intercultural education” (Garcia 87).
Because of the authority vested in local school boards rather than in federal control of school curricula and teaching methodologies, even The Native American Language Act of 1990 did not coerce local schools to teach Native American students in native languages. Rather a concerted effort by educators particularly at universities, activists, and communities has resulted in change.
Much of the literature today calls for a movement from appropriation of indigenous wisdoms and knowledges in higher education to appreciation and then to accommodation. In this view, the relationship between indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge needs to be placed in a framework of interaction (Brady 413). Based on what Brady calls mechanistic worldviews and compartmentalized knowledge, many educational systems do not consider the cultural differences in what constitutes knowledge and thus block full participation in the introduced educational systems (414). Identity, place, time, knowledge, spirituality, learning, and assessment tend to be more holistic and contextual in indigenous cultures. Yet the need to participate in Western cultural contexts makes resolving the differences between the two philosophical inconsistencies imperative. With new attention to social justice and human rights, an examination of this possible difference between the knowledge bases of the teacher and the student has gained significance. For example, educators with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia observed that skills and characteristics valued at home became irrelevant in school because of the way teaching was conducted, causing a lack of rapport between students and teachers. An African analysis of indigenous knowledge argues that it is not elusive but is what local people do and have done for generations (Semali, “Community” 307). In this study indigenous literacy was defined as oral-aural literacy skills. Semali cites the seminal work in the Philippines of Conklin in “the systematic, detailed and analytic study of ethnoscience, consisting of the Hanunoo’s knowledge of 1600 different species of plants” (308) to show how local knowledge can intersect with school knowledge. He defines indigenous knowledge as the unofficial knowledge and posits that the ambivalence between school and community enters into debates about the role of schooling in ameliorating conflicts and about communities participating in the education of the youth, concluding that curriculum designers should revalue indigenous literacy.
Approximately 2000 indigenous people attended the World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In a discussion of indigenous knowledge, two areas of concentration were research and curriculum, with attempts made to develop terms of reference and methodologies on indigenous research and to place ownership of indigenous knowledge, sometimes the intellectual property of thousands of years, with indigenous people and communities (Brady 415). Indigenous people from impoverished areas whose former lifestyles no longer are sustained because of exploitation find also that their knowledge has been appropriated. The world community has devalued the uses of medicinal herbs, hunting animals, and “local knowledge” of edible plants and animals—the indigenous scientific knowledge, rather than seeing it as a commodity. Many of the staples enjoyed by the West such as potatoes, rice, spices, and domestic chickens originated from the lands of indigenous people. Besides local scientific knowledge, indigenous art, music, dance, and science are only recently being embraced.
To effectively educate students with different knowledge bases, cognitive habits of learning, and ways of processing information—faculty need to achieve cultural literacy and cross-cultural communication. In light of the demographics in higher education, reform in higher education could employ learning style research. For example, researchers found that “both the students and faculty must have knowledge of both the Native American and mainstream culture if Native American students are to be successful in the university environment (Pipes, Westby, and Inglebret 148). Swisher and Tippeconic emphasize that the teaching-learning relationship between faculty and students must be the central focus of research and practice (1). The acceptance of indigenous knowledge and the recognition of social justice create a space in higher education for indigenous peoples both as scholars and researchers. There remains, however, a need for a new basis of interaction between the two paradigms and for an environment where that interaction can occur in higher education. Higher education institutions can provide an environment for the development of indigenous methodologies and curricula valuing both the local and global knowledge contexts. While a range of different contexts produce students with a variety of learning styles, attention to traditional ways of knowing and learning can facilitate the indigenous student’s transition into the formal institutions in dominant languages but with their identity in tact.
Learning style sometimes refers to the learner’s motivation, task engagement, and the active processing work or information processing habits, a step after the learner is motivated and engaged in the task (Aragon 3). While avoiding the danger of stereotyping, research thus far shows that generally American Indian/Alaska Native students learn in ways characterized by factors of social/affective emphasis, harmony, holistic perspectives, expressive creativity, and nonverbal communication (3). They learn by thinking and by watching (1). Further heredity, experiences, environment, linguistics, cultural differences, and factors such as assimilation versus Native identity affect the teaching and learning of these students. The distinct cultures and language groups vary in values, spiritual beliefs, kinship patterns, economics, and levels of acculturation (Whitbeck, Hoyt and LaFromboise 48). Yet, while significant variations among the 561 federally recognized American Indian entities, tribes, and individuals exist—their distinct cultural values include: conformity to authority and respect for elders, taciturnity, strong tribal social hierarchy, patrimonial/matrilineal clans, and an emphasis on learning, which is deeply rooted in the teachings of elders (Pewewardy “Learning Styles” 2). These cultural characteristics are exhibited in socialization patterns distinguished from other ethnic groups (Yellow Bird and Snipp 2002 in Aragon 4). Rather than seen as deficiencies, these differences should be used to advance the Native American’s learning.
Successful learning takes place within cultural frameworks, as noted by Vygotsky in 1978, and students tend to seek situations compatible with their learning style. The relationship between the American Indian/Alaska Native students and their way of processing information ultimately affects the teaching and learning. In a study of the learning and study practices of postsecondary American Indian/Alaska Native students in a community college in the southwest, Steven Aragon examined 206 students (using four sites with one tribally controlled community college, 49 different tribes with 99 participants identifying with two or more tribes). The study assumed that education is about producing good citizens, so that supplementing study skills for Native American/Alaska Natives helps prepare them for a civic responsibility (Aragon, “Learning” 9). The results showed that at best, the students had average learning and study skill abilities in and outside the classroom. The implications show that since learning skills can be taught, universities need to implement student success courses, often called freshman seminar or first-year experience, faculty need to help students develop their learning and study strategies as they teach course content, educators need to consider that the students are reflective thinkers, and faculty and advisors need to facilitate in students’ positive attitudes toward education and a confidence in themselves to succeed. When considering the complications of delayed enrollment, part-time attendance, self-support, status of single parent, full time work, care of a dependent, and a GED recipient, educators would do well to offer any help that would lighten the burden on this student population with 35% having at least four or more of these risks compared to 22% of whites, 27% of Hispanics, and 31% of African-Americans (National Postsecondary Student Aid Study in O’Brien & Zudak, qtd. In Aragon, “Information” 1).
Universities that allow space for indigenous students to make choices and space to develop their own ideas and academic work facilitate self-determination. Central to indigenous education, the maintenance of culture in curriculum development serves the needs of indigenous people and also creates a cultural cohesiveness with non-indigenous students, by helping students to respect the history, culture, and society of the indigenous students. Because of attention to these factors, the 35 tribal colleges started since 1963 ensure that students build on their identity rather than changing it to survive in a university setting. Tribal colleges offer an intermediary to train indigenous students to reaffirm their identity and to survive in the modern world (Woodcock 819). Students who availed themselves of these institutions had a completion rate of 75% greater that those going directly to a four-year school (819). Another study involving thirteen Native American college students who were raised on a reservation found that they attributed their success to family support, structured social support, faculty/staff warmth, exposure to college and vocations, developing independence and assertiveness, reliance on spiritual resources, dealing with racism, nonlinear path, and paradoxical cultural pressures (Jackson, Smith, and Hill 548). This study indicates that mentoring and programmatic support help students succeed. Other literature shows that institutions that encourage indigenous educators and families to participate in the content, delivery, and assessment of the teaching and learning—about the decision-making of who, how, when, where, and what to teach in Indigenous Studies across the world—return control over knowledge, education, health, and land to them, in part due to international networks that have formed.
One program in the Native American Institute at the University of Michigan calls for stages of planning and formal programming (Appendix B). In a special edition of Comparative Education, Stephen May and Sheila Aikman include the work of indigenous and non-indigenous authors to address current issues and developments in indigenous education. They situate the discussions in the larger struggles for democracy, social justice, and self-determination related to real experiences of indigenous peoples worldwide (144). Through a discussion of themes of control of education, cultural and Linguistic maintenance, and liaisons with government and non-government agencies, they provide approaches to curriculum, pedagogy, and learning.
Considering student survival in a university world, special initiatives for Alaska Natives, specifically Yup’ik students in four-year institutions, developed programs and policies that established environments to build upon and maintain their cultural identity. For example, untypical of mainstream students, Yup’ik students would not jump up and down with raised hands to give an answer to a question because they are taught to be modest, kind, humble and friendly (Barnhardt 116). The implications of the duality that students face require institutions to implement programs and policies to address pluralism and to help students build larger loyalties without ingrained prejudices. The recent trends at the University of Alaska Fairbanks in Alaska (UAF) show a more heterogeneous population, more Alaska Native students participating in and graduating from the UAF programs, but a disproportionate number of these students leaving the university. Of urgent concern is the number of Native people with teaching degrees, only 3.2% of the teachers in Alaska whereas Native people comprise 15.6% of the population, creating a serious teacher shortage (Barnhardt 118). Because of the geographic and cultural isolation, teachers recruited from the lower 48 states do not stay long. This turnover rate points to a need for people who are knowledgeable about the locality to go to rural areas. However, the percentage of Native students choosing teacher education is decreasing in a nationwide trend for minorities. An examination of the enrollment figures, completion rates, course enrollments, and program costs requires ethnographic inquiry such as questions about how success is defined, what constructs define the culture and subcultures of the university and those of the Native students, what factors make a successful Alaska Native person and a successful university graduate and the compatibility of these factors.
UAF has responded to the needs of native populations by implementing new policies or practices emphasizing student support services and those emphasizing structural or organizational changes with the university system (Barnhardt 122). The university made changes in the area of Student Support Services including counseling and tutoring services, orientation, bridging, and recruitment programs, developmental or remediation course, special housing options, physical space for work and study, and information distribution (123). Characteristics of practices and policies show that some services are available to all students while others serve only minorities.
As a second component, practices and policies address curriculum, resources, organization, and programs. These characteristics require substantive change and reallotment of resources, although they are the first to be cut; in addition, the perception shows a concern that educators will lower academic standards, but students describe these changes as important for success at the university. In this approach university educators ask if the policies and programs are based on an assimilation/integration model, a differentiation/separation model that encourages distinctness, or a pluralistic/mosaic model that supports minorities’ use of certain aspects of their cultural identity (Barnhardt 127-28).
A crucial question in examining university policies is who has responsibility for change? Who examines the assumptions, structures, and priorities to determine if the campus is pluralistic? Does the student have to become another person to succeed? The characteristics of universities where students have been academically successful include mission statements that celebrate diversity, administrative involvement and support from important leaders and administrators both symbolically and practically, effective linkage with minority communities (families, village, tribe, minority political structure), strong and numerous student support services, academic departments meaningfully involved in minority issues, minority faculty actively recruited and supported, and training, incentive, and reward for all faculty using culturally sensitive approaches in teaching and research, and multicultural opportunities for all students(Barnhardt 130-31).
Universities with practices and policies using ethno-pedagogy as well as internationalized curriculum allow students to retain their identity and to function in a more global arena. The Family Education Model at five participating institutions in Montana combine all these practices and policies to improve student retention (Appendix B2).
Teacher’s Training and Recruitment Programs
Because native educators provide role models for indigenous students, faculty and staff with a Native American heritage enrich a student’s educational experiences. However, a significant shortage of indigenous educators remains problematic. At the University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF), the university’s approach to teacher education programs influences the diversity of the campus and often overlooks the status afforded to other teacher education programs, faculty, and students within a university system. The practices in academic, research, and administrative units such as in admission policies, core curriculum requirements, criteria for tenure and promotion, financial air, course approval process, housing options, social environment, and the overall quality of life all show support for the needs of a culturally diverse group of students. Those in teacher education programs can prepare teacher education students for the culturally diverse schools of the 21st century, with access to the research on the latest best practices can work with the wider university community. The changes in Teacher Education at UAF include (a) the formation of a School of Education in the College of Liberal Arts, (b) the implementation of a university –wide core curriculum of 39 semester hours, and (c) the establishedment of a 5th year program for secondary certification and the elimination of B.Ed. secondary program on all campuses (Barnhardt 135). The changes in the curriculum include culturally diverse education courses, for example addressing Alaska Native and rural issues, use of materials and assignments related to local/regional interests, all students in elementary program take one course in Native Cultures of Alaska, education classes that are specific to Native people, cross-listed in the Department of Alaska Native Studies, courses related to Alaska Natives counting for teacher education students, a practicum in urban school settings, and an option to do student teaching in a rural community. Changes in pedagogy include hiring of Alaska Native faculty, Natives servicing as resources, guest speakers, and teacher supervisors, small classes with seminar formats for first-year students, and more sensitive teaching practices. The changes in evaluation include criteria for admission into the Teacher Education program (writing sample, one year experience, GPA, life skills, and interpersonal and intercultural communication skills), and a range of assessments. These changes in policies and practices are orchestrated to allow students to build on the identity with which they arrived at the university rather than having to become the opposite of who they were (Barnhardt 135-37).
An Oksale program partnering tribal colleges and a public research university in developed a teacher training program in Washington (Appendix C2). Using land-grant institutions with mission statements including outreach, this partnership helped students grow not only in their awareness of their culture but also in their respect for teaching professionals as they helped improve education for Native students (Pavel 45).
Including a service component in indigenous higher education links Native Americans to their communities as student develop skills, offer needed assistance, and learn life goals of attending to the needs of others. Based on its land-grant history, the University of Minnesota’s (MSU) Department of American Indian Studies devoted part of its academics to service on reservations and urban Indian communities to reach out to the native populations (Krouse 118). They included 18-24 semester credits with 12 credits in general core courses from two different academic departments and six elective credits. An internship added six credits for community projects or research activities mentored by faculty with already established networks. In addition, specialized courses in American Indian studies, including language courses in Ojibwe, complemented the degree plan. From this academic and outreach program, students organized support organizations, and faculty formed interest groups to encourage interinstitutional cooperation (221). Besides the outreach program to tribal communities, MSU has developed an international emphasis on study abroad and research. Quechua parents and activists in Peru have addressed the issues of malnutrition, first aid, family abandonment, school dropout rates, child abuse, and illiteracy (Garcia 77), an exemplar outreach for academic service learning.
A successful model of using local knowledge of herd management at Crownpoint Institute of Technology involves students in academic service and learning (VanAlstine 48); (Appendix C3). A more in-depth treatment of service learning in indigenous higher education warrants additional attention.
Institutions of higher education can create new spaces for the interaction between traditional and modern cultures and for the overlapping of tribal, national, and global knowledge contexts. By emphasizing the local in a global context, curriculum can bridge the two domains for indigenous students. The case of the Chiapas in Mexico demonstrated that local communities could effectively employ globalization to insure local policies and practices, particularly maintaining their language, culture, and modes of teaching through technology, and tangentially appealing to international solidarity such as the Zapatistas made use of these resources (Reinke 483, 494). The indigenes maintained the local pedagogical practice while including rather than excluding the benefits of a global world. The benefits of technology, international solidarity, financial resources, research and developments, and other global processes can appropriate the tools of globalization so that instead of threatening the culture and language of indigenous people, it benefits their cultural reproduction. Under-represented in higher education, living in substandard conditions, and marginalized by mainstream authorities, indigenous people now have a hope of coexisting in both worlds and enjoying each. Reallocated sources, community involvement, and support of non-government and philanthropic organizations have combined to usher in culturally appropriate education in an environment that promotes an awareness and use of global advantages. This duality of identity fosters better participants in a civic society and particularly gives voice to all citizens in a democracy. Further the indigene graduates are able to fully function in a seemingly borderless world.
Margaret Valadian argues that “if indigenous peoples are to take their rightful place in the Twenty-First Century, they must take full advantage of distance education to transcend not only national systems but social and cultural boundaries,” with higher education moving them from a minority to a majority mind-set (237). Following its mission statement to provide quality postsecondary education for Native Americans locally and throughout the United States, Salish Kootenai College on the Flathead Reservation in Montana improved access and retention by implementing distance learning (Stein and Jetty 19). This model used partnerships, technology, and financial resources to fulfill students’ needs (Appendix C1). Indigenous students must be shown that they are valued for who they are, but also they must be required to use the global tools that students around the world are acquiring. Instead of hunger, poverty, conflicts, displacement, and violence ensuing over rights, as in the case of many indigenes in Africa, indigenous people offered educational opportunities could become part of the solution. Instead of poverty increasing as their grazing land becomes agricultural land, educated Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania could gain an international solidarity as they join with other indigenous intellectuals to voice their concerns. New cultural creations go between the local and global cultures to form “third culture realities” (Malinowski in Stairs, “Cultural” 156). Educators negotiate the boundaries between the classroom, the school and community, the region, and the state (Stairs, “Cultural” 158). Local control alone could also adopt a formal culture to legitimize its program and could engage in corruption for personal gain. Combining the benefits of both domains enriches the education. As negotiators for indigenous students, educators negotiate cultural meaning, participation and identity (162, 166). Universities that provide a cultural brokerage between the traditional and formal programs and policies will more likely graduate indigenous students who succeed in their academic pursuits and then in their local, national, and international civic responsibilities.
Indigenous education should improve access and graduation, offer rigorous academic programs, leadership development, scholarship promoting social and civic consciousness, higher education connected to the community, and increased respect for Native cultures.
The future of indigenous higher education in the United States shows great promise if it continues to encourage debate and interaction among stakeholders, meet the challenge of new system of seamless educational communities, offer culturally-based leadership models, conduct empirical studies by Natives and Non-Natives, include reclamation of languages and culture, and provide tools for success in a globalized world.
“The Big Game” (Weaver 241)
The day had come for the championship game in the all Native basketball tournament. Many teams had played valiantly, but on the last day the competition came down to the highly competitive Lakota and Navajo teams. The tension was high as all waited to see which would be the best team.
Prior to the game, some of the Lakota players went to watch the Navajos practice. They were awed and somewhat intimidated by the Navajos’ impressive display of skills. One Lakota who was particularly anxious and insecure pointed out to his teammates that some of the Navajo players had facial hair. “Everyone knows that Indians don’t have facial hair,” he stated. Another Lakota added that some of the Navajos also had suspiciously dark skin. They concluded, disdainfully, that clearly these were not Native people and, in fact, were probably a “bunch of Mexicans.” The so-called Navajos should be disqualified from the tournament, leaving the Lakota team the winner by default.
That same afternoon, some Navajo players went to watch the Lakota team practice. The Lakotas had a lot of skillful moves that made the Navajos worry. One Navajo observed, “That guy’s skin sure looks awful light.” Another added, “Yeah, most of them have short hair.” They concluded, disdainfully, that clearly these were not Native people and, in fact, were probably a “bunch of white guys.” The so-called Lakotas should be disqualified from the tournament, leaving the Navajos the winners by default.
The captains from both teams brought their accusations to the referee just before game time. Both teams agreed that Native identity must be established before the game could be played and that whichever team could not establish Native identity to everyone’s satisfaction must forfeit. The Lakota captain suggested that everyone show his tribal enrollment card as proof of identity. The Lakotas promptly displayed their “red cards,” but some Navajos did not have enrollment cards. The Lakotas were ready to celebrate their victory when the Navajo captains protested that carrying an enrollment card was a product of colonization and not an indicator of true identity. He suggested that the real proof would be a display of indigenous language skills, and each Navajo proceeded to recite his clan affiliations in the traditional way of introducing himself in the Navajo language. Some of the Lakotas were able to speak their language, but others were not. The teams went back and forth proposing standards of proof of identity, but each proposed standard was self-serving and could not be met by the other team. As the sun began to set, the frustrated referees canceled the championship game. Because of the accusations and disagreements that could not be resolved there would be no champion in the indigenous tournament
Models for Higher Education
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan has designed and implemented a complex program for Native American studies, cultural enrichment, leading to a degree in the field. Two stages of the model include the planning and the formal program.
- faculty meet to discuss structure of program
- other models
- core courses in interdisciplinary departments
- focus (Native Americans of Great Lakes)
- general core courses 12 credits 2 academic departments with 6 credits above 300 level
- electives six credits from courses with significant focus on Native American subject (first taught as special topics)
- internship up to six hours, reservation project, community project; faculty established connections
- regularly offered courses in AI studies i.e. Perspectives in American Studies North American Indian Ethnography Native American Prehistory
5. funding included a predoctoral fellowship for a graduate student at the
Dissertation stage, Faculty travel for research and conferences, networking
6. language courses regularized, crucial to retention Ojibwe
7. speakers, films, dinners, annual student powwows, visibility
Models for Education
Family Education Model in Montana
“In Our Mother’s Voice” Model” Go to the Source http:/ed-web2.educ.msu.edu/voice/model.htm
Family Education Model: Meeting the Student Retention Challenge
The American Indian self-determination movement resulted in the establishment of 33 tribal colleges in the U.S. (HeavyRunner 29). AI educators, social work professionals, and university advisors from five participating institutions in Montana developed the Family Education Model. The model is based on the three assumptions that students need the college to intervene in their accessing social and health services, that the colleges must enlist families to support the students, and that the colleges must develop partnerships with the family members for cultural and social activities to help students have a sense of belonging. Because of the entire family’s participation, resentment for time away from home and encouragement for academic persistence are encouraged. Three common principles undergird the programs: liaisons between the schools and families based on equality and respect, the staff’s enhancement of families capacity to support the students, and the students’ service to others (30). The students become resources to their own tribes and families, but also to other programs and tribal communities. Retention programs strengthen families’ cultural, racial, and linguistic identities and enhance their ability to function in a multicultural society; they contribute to their community-building process; they advocate for services and systems that are fair, responsive, and accountable to the families; they mobilize formal and informal resources for the family development; they are responsive to emerging family and community issues; and all program activities model principles of family support (31-32). The program seeks to empower the students, using experiential reflexive learning. The essential elements of the implementation process include assessment, commitment, collaboration, communication, and evaluation. The assessment showed that students who went two years to a tribal college were four times more likely to complete a four-year education than those who went directly to the university system. The model shows that both the student and community are empowered with traditional wisdom being merged with technology, perspectives, and information necessary for a better life (35). The following schema represents the importance of leadership in instilling communal values in student education (HeavyRunner 34).
Components to achieve this infusion include:
student’s attributes, expectations, self-assessment
administrators, faculty and staff understand goals and purposes
members of team for student’s retention
ongoing among college entities, students, and families
methodologies from education and social work to measure effectiveness of
Stories of Innovations
The Journal of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002) celebrates the Native American Higher Education Initiative (NAHEI) “Capturing the Dream” by presenting stories of innovations in Native controlled higher education.
Salish Kootenai College on the Flathead Reservation in Western Montana
The mission statement is “to provide quality postsecondary education opportunities for NA locally and throughout the United States. The College will strive to provide opportunities for individual self-improvement to promote and help maintain the cultures of the confederated Tribes of the Flathead Indian Reservation” (Stein and Jetty 19).
The college assists the tribal government and individual tribal members to improve the quality of life in economic development by providing vocational education, and in research, as well as language, culture and heritage enhancement. Because many NA are place-bound and have child care needs, distance education now serves as a model for other AI nations who would like to start college. Using NAHEI funds, local leadership, staff, and faculty, they began the changeover to the Information Age. After in-depth assessment of the potential students and the best delivery system, the committee formed internal and external partnerships to accomplish their recommendations. In the Eagle Project they developed 100 courses across a broad spectrum of Human Services and Environmental Studies, trained faculty, and incorporated the goal of preservation and enhancement of the Salish and Kootenai people’s languages and culture into their offerings. For example, one anatomy class begins one module with the question, “How does your tribe use skins?” which led to discussions of kinds of hides or skins different tribes used, the idea of the gift of the animal, and the various processes, allowing for storytelling that included tribal, cultural, and scientific lessons to create cultural pride and ensure passing on cultural knowledge. The program addressed quality service in federal student financial aid, advising, technical service and the value of face-to-face experience. They learned the value of realistic planning, financial challenges, faculty commitment, fulfillment of students’ needs, technological innovations, and the cost of sustaining such a program.
The Oksale Story: Training Teachers for Schools Serving AI and AN
Recognizing the severe under-representation of NA in higher education, the partnership between two land-grant schools, Northwest Indian College and Washington State University began a teacher education program and a search for best practices. Including 108-hour practicum, rigorous cultural learning, and life experiences, the program developed student support, faculty-student conferences, and faculty mentoring in combination with academic courses, assessment and data collection, and culturally responsive pedagogy (Pavel 40). Using inquiry-based instruction and a worldview of interrelatedness, the program built on community values, trust, and student’s self-confidence. Participants acted as agents of change. The graduation and placement of students in teaching careers, the integration of Navajo language and culture in the curriculum, and the development of effective mentoring programs proved successful (46).
The Story of Crownpoint Institute of Technology and Its Alternative Livestock Program
Assuming a harmonious relationship between animal, earth, and sun, the Crownpoint Institute of Technology uses Dine philosophy to offer a student-oriented program. Providing intensive natural sciences and mathematics and courses to revitalize Navajo culture, it implemented a livestock program using community knowledge about the nutritional value of elk, the range management, and the economic advantages, culminating in a Veterinary of Technology degree. In spite of a battle between the state of New Mexico and the tribal government, the program involving networks among educational, industrial, and non-governmental organizations has proved successful in socioeconomic development of the reservation, in preservation of the Navajo culture, and in the blend of Western and local knowledge, and as a result has received nation-wide recognition (VanAlstine and others 50-52).
Coolangatta Proclamation of Indigenous Education
Indigenous Education should:
Control/govern Indigenous education systems
Establish schools and other learning facilities that recognize, respect and promote
Indigenous values, philosophies and ideologies
Develop and implement culturally inclusive curricula
Utilize the essential wisdom of Indigenous elders in the education process
Establish the criteria for evaluation and assessment
Define the identity standards for the gifted and talented
Promote the use of Indigenous language in education
Establish the parameters and ethics within which Indigenous education research should
Design and deliver culturally appropriate and sensitive teacher training programs
Participate in teacher certification and selection
Develop criteria for the registration and operation of schools and other learning facilities
Choose the nature and scope of education without prejudices
(Coolangatta Statement, World Indigenous Peoples Conference: Education, 1996).
Akintunde Akinyemi. “Yoruba Oral Literature: A Source of Indigenous Education for
Children.” Journal of African Cultural Studies. 16.3 (Dec. 2003):161-179.
Aragon, Steven R. “Information Processing Patterns of Postsecondary American
Indian/Alaska Native Students.” Journal of American Indian Education 43.1
---.“Learning and Study Practices of Postsecondary American
Indian/Alaskan Native Students.” Journal of American Indian Education 43.2
(2004): 1-13. Wilson Web.
Barnhardt. Carol. “Life on the Other Side: Native Student Survival in a University
World.” Peabody Journal of Education, 69.2 Negotiating the Culture of
Indigenous Schools (Winter 1994): 115-139.
Benham, Maenette L. P. “Bringing Out the Stories: Lessons about Engagement.” Journal
of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002): 2-8.
---. “The Story of the Hawaiian Studies Center on the Brigham Young University-
Hawai’I Campus.” Journal of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002): 9-18.
Boyer, Paul and Ernest L. Boyer.. Native American Colleges: Progress and Prospects.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.
Brady, Wendy. “Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation.” International
Review of Education 43.5-6. Tradition, Modernity and Postmodernity in
Comparative Education (1997): 412-422.
Cowell, Andrew. “Bilingual Curriculum among the Northern Arapaho: Oral Tradition,
Literacy and Performance.” The American Indian Quarterly 26.1 (Winter 2002):
Eichstaedt, Peter. “A Matter of Survival.” Diverse Issues in Higher Education 23.19 (2006): 28-31.
Ferrin, Scott Ellis. “Reasserting Language Rights of Native American Students in the
Face of Proposition 227 and Other Language-Base Referenda,” Journal of
Law & Education 28 (1999): 1. Qtd. In Littlejohn 486.
Garcia, Maria Elena. “The Politics of Community: Education, Indigenous Rights, and
Ethnic Mobilization in Peru.” Latin American Perspectives, 30.1 Indigenous
Transformational Movements in Contemporary Latin America (Jan. 2003): 70-
Gough, Noel. “Locating Curriculum Studies in the Global Village.” Journal of
Curriculum Studies 32.2 (1 Mar. 2000): 320-342.
Hall, Gillette and Harry A. Patrinos. Indigenous Peoples, Poverty, and Human
Development in Latin America: 1994-2004. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan,
HeavyRunner, Iris and Richard DeCelles. “Family Education Model: Meeting the Student
Retention Challenge.” Journal of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002): 29-37.
Horwedel, Dina. “Operation STEM.” Diverse: Issues in Higher Education 23.20
(2006):36-39. Professional Development Collection 20 Feb. 2007. ebscohost.com
Jackson, Aaron P., Steven A. Smith, and Curtis L. Hill. “Academic Persistence Among
Native American College Students.” Journal of College Student Development
44.4 (July, August 2003):548-65.
Kerbo, Harold R. “College Achievement among Native Americans: A Research Note.”
Social Forces 59.4 (June 1981): 1275-1280.
Kingsbury, Benedict. “’Indigenous Peoples’ in International Law: A Constructivist Approach to the Asian Controversy. The American Journal of International Law.
92.3 (Jul. 1998): 414-437.
Krauss, M. “The Condition of Native North American Languages: The Need for Realistic
Assessment and Action.” International Journal of Sociology of Language 132
Krouse, Susan Applegate. “Critical Mass and Other Crucial Factors in a Developing
American Indian Studies Program.” American Indian Quarterly 25.2 (Spring
Li, Tania Murray. Articulating Indigenous Identity in Indonesia: Resource Politics and
the Tribal Slot.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 42.1 (Jan 2000):
149-179. Accessed Jstor 19 Feb. 2007.
Littlejohn, Jim. “The Impact of the Native American Languages Act on Public School
Curriculum: A Different View.” Journal of Law and Education 29.3 (2000): 481-
90. Accessed Wilson Web 19 Feb. 2007.
Lloyd, Margaret. “More Important Than Education: Using Telecommunications to
Connect Indigenous Students with Their Home Community.” Social
Alternatives 22.3 (Third Quarter 2003): 32-37.
Lomawaima, Tsianina and Teresa L. McCarty. “When Tribal Sovereignty Challenges
Democracy: American Indian Education and the Democratic Ideal.” American
Educational Research Journal 39.2 (Summer 2002): 279-305.
Mann, Henrietta. “Elder Reflections.” Journal of American Indian Education 41.2
May, Stephen and Sheila Aikman. “Indigenous Education: Addressing Current Issues and
Developments.” Comparative Education 39.2 (2003): 139-145.
McCarty, Teresa L. and Lucille J. Watahornigie. “Indigenous Community-Based
Language Education in the USA.” Language, Culture, and Curriculum 2.3
Miyoshi, Masao. “A Borderless World? From Colonialism to Transnationalism and the
Decline of the Nation-State.” Eds. Rob Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake. Global
and Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. Durham:
Duke UP, 1996.
Morgan, Douglas L. “Appropriation, Appreciation, Accommodation: Indigenous
Wisdoms and Knowledges in Higher Education.” International Review of
Education. 49.1-2 (2003): 35-49.
Pavel, Michael, Susan Rae Banks, and Susan Pavel. “The Oksale Story: Training
Teachers for Schools Serving American Indians and Alaska Natives.” Journal
of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002): 38-47.
Pease-Pretty On Top, Janine. “Events Leading to the Passage of the Tribally Controlled
Community College Assistance Act of 1978. Journal of American Indian
Education 42.1 (2003): 6-21. Wilson Web.
Pewewardy, Cornel. “Learning Styles of American Indian/Alaska Native Students: A
Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice.” Journal of American
Indian Education 41.3 (2002): 1-81.
Pewewardy, Cornel. “Renaming Ourselves on Our Own Terms: Race, Tribal Nations,
and Representation in Education.” Indigenous Nations Studies Journal 1.1
(Spring 2000): 13+.
Pipes, Marilyn, Carol Westby, and Ella Inglebret. “Profile of Native American Students:
Prerequisite Knowledge for Achieving Effective Recruitment and Retention.” In
L.W. Clark and D. E. Waltzman (eds.) Faculty and Student Challenges in Facing
Cultural and Linguistic Diversity. Springfield: Thomas, 1993: 37-172. Eric.ed.gov
Raby, Rosalind Latiner. “Comparative and International Education: A Bibliography
1999.” Comparative Education Review 44.3 (Aug. 2000): 381-419.
Reinke, Leanne. “Globalisation and Local Indigenous Education in Mexico.”
International Review of Education 50.5-6 (2004):483-496. email@example.com
20 Feb. 2007.
Semali, Ladislaus. “Community as Classroom: Dilemmas in Valuing African Indigenous
Literacy in Education. International Review of Literature. 45.3-4 (1999(: 305-
“A Snapshot.” Diverse Issues in Higher Education 23.19 (2006):26-27.
Stairs, Arlene. “The Cultural Negotiation of Indigenous Education: Between
Microethnography and Model-Building.” Peabody Journal of Education 69.2
Negotiating the Culture of Indigenous Schools (Winter 1994):154-171.
---. “Self-Image, World-Image: Speculations on Identity from Experiences with Inuit.”
Ethos 20.1 (1992):116-120.
Stein, Wayne J. and Mike Jetty. “The Story of Distance Learning at Salish Lootenal
College.” Journal of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002): 19-28.
Sucharitkul, Sompong. “The Inter-Temporal Character of International and Comparative
Law Regarding the Rights of the Indigenous Populations of the World.” The
American Journal of Comparative Law 50, Supplement: American Law in a
Time of Global Interdependence: U.S. National Reports to the 16th International
Congress of Comparative Law (Autumn 2002): 3-31.
Swisher, Karen Gayton and John W. Tippeconic, III. Eds. Next Steps, Research and
Practice to Advance Indian Education. Charleston: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural
Education and Small Schools, 1999.
U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. In “A Snapshot”
Valadian, Margaret. “Distance Education for Indigenous Minorities in Developing
Communities.” Higher Education in Europe 24.2 (1999): 231-39.
VanAlstine, Matthew, Elizabeth Murakami Ramalho, and Timothy Sanchez. “The Story
of Crownpoint Institute of Technology and Its Alternative Livestock Program.”
Journal of American Indian Education 41.2 (2002): 48-60.
Varennes, Fernand de. “Minority Aspirations and the Revival of Indigenous Peoples.” International Review of Education 42.4 The Education of Minorities (1996): 309-
25. Accessed Jstor 19 Feb. 2007.
Weaver, Hilary N. “Indigenous Identity: What Is It, and Who Really Has It?”
American Indian Quarterly 25.2 (Spring 2001): 240-255. Accessed in Jstor 19
Whitbeck, L.R. and D.R. Hoyt, J. D. Stubben, and T. LaFromboise. “Traditional Culture
and Academic Success among American Indian Children in Upper Midwest.”
Journal of American Indian Education 40.2 (2001): 48-60.
Woodcock, Don B. and Osman Alawiye. “The Antecedents of Failure and Emerging
Hope: American Indians and Public Higher Education.” Education 121.4
(Summer 2001):810-820. Accessed Wilson Web
American Indian Higher Education Consortium. AIHEC Quest Portal: Your Tribal
College and University Resource. http://quest.aihec.org/default.aspx
Bureau of Indian Affairs. 9 Mar. 2007. http://www.doi.gov/bureau-indian-affairs.html
Native American Higher Education Initiative: Capturing the Dream, 1994-2002.
Battlecreek: W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2002. http://www.wkkf.org,
(March 12 A.M.)
- DR. ROBERTA L. OMAS-AS (Surigao del Sur PSC)
QUESTION: As mentioned by our resource speaker, Ms. Norma Gonos, the curriculum was implemented by DepEd. I would like to ask if there is a prototype curriculum for higher education because this must be a very good program.
ANSWER: MS. NORMA GONOS
We are into the elementary and high school DepEd and I think this is the proper body to talk about the IP Curriculum education. Because as of yet, we don’t know any school implementing the Indigenous curriculum except for the Pamulaan in USEP for higher learning. My presentation I hope would educate people who are saying that they want to support the education in the IP. What I have presented is not only true to the elementary and high school because the world views that we are going to use as the framework for developing for higher education. I would like to take this opportunity to educate more the students of USEP which belong to IP communities but are ashamed to come out in the open and say so publicly that I am very proud to stand up that he or she is an IP and there’s nothing wrong of becoming an IP—nothing wrong in believing in our own world views and what I have presented. I will make my presentation shorter. I hope I was able to talk side by side with the slide. I can articulate all I have said this morning in my paper and I can provide that’s to all the universities who wants to use framework holistic education that is interrelated with our community, with our ancestral domain and our culture and their indigenous belief systems.
- DR. EDNA JALOTJOT
QUESTION: Ako naa koy pangutana kay Juana ug kay Janeth, pareha sa inyong gistorya maglisod mo sa inyong pagskwela kay naa pud may daghag gibati na discrimination. Pero karon naagian jud ninyo nang tanan. So tingali kani para sa mga esudyante diri. Kay si Juana ug Janeth niagi ug discrimination kita as a university (USEP). Permeng tuig pa namo naa ni bata na nagskwela gikan sa mga lain-lainh tribo. Naa ba mo ginabati na discrimination sa atong kaugalinong eskwelahan? Naa bay pagkalahi sa naagian ni Juana ug ni Janeth?
- RENATO MASANGKAY
QUESTION: Tanong ko lang an oh Ma’am Gonos kung ang plano po ba natin ay hanggang papel lang po. Kadalasan po kasing nangyayari sa mga ganito ay hindi natutupad talaga. Kaya nagwoworry kami baka ito ay patuloy na pagsali sa globalisasyon. Pahirap na nang pahirap ang mga tao so baka pagkatapos an oh ng pag-aaral ay wala na ito.
ANSWER: That’s actually a question of how strong the IP rights have been saying that the NCIP created to protect and develop or as a primary agency task to oversee the life of Indigenous cultural community. That is another form of discrimination. I have to be franked about it and say honestly hat it is one form of discrimination when it is not a deliberate saying that negative things attributed to IP such as kulot kag buhok, itom ka. But its done through education and one is the non-implementation of the Indigenous People’s Rights and we are bragging that the Philippines is the only nation in the world that has IP rights act enacted in Congress and it is very clear it has to be implemented but sadly, there are also laws and policies that are currently enacted with which runs over the IP rights acts. Second is the framework of development of donor agencies. They come to implement projects by looking at the matrices which I said a while ago. But not looking into the entire holistic approach that using the valiant theory or our religious leaders are nor pagans because we believe in God and we believe that Bathala is our Almighty being and that is wrong to say that uor framework of development parang putting religion into it. Second, ang iba pumunta, I heard somebody from the academe saying that very soon, the community somewhere in Mindanao will grow into a culture of war because they see empty shells everyday. But if we would soon grow up sa kultura na hindi naman tama yung perspektiba ng pagpunta ng development like “Punta kami ng Davao, we are from so and so and gusto an oh dun sa conflict area. They would soon grow up in a culture na kailangan muna natin na mag-conflict para lang magkaroon ng development project kaya I think all educators, should redirect their perspective of what is education for the IP’s and what is the framework for peace and development. Yan lang po siguro ang dpat na tingnan. So now, I’d like to go back to go back to the question, The Indigenous Rights Act implemented fully of the government would recognize that and capacitate NCIP by giving them chance and reorganizing people there because NCIP is actually, there are some people who are remnant of the dead OSCS. Siguro, I don’t know of I have to be proud to tell you that I was once a commissioner of the NCIP but Sir Ponce here knew that I’m from the very start that is part of our advocacy and sinabyan ko yung implementation. But sadly, again, our experience tell us na talagang hindi fully i-recognize ng government. It’s like just a hammer na pwede lang gamitin din against mga barumbadong Brgy. Capt. Pero siguro is not as kusog as but it’s a good tool for advocacy. But they can’t present their laws recognizing the Ip but that Filipinos can say we have the IP rights act. As to strength of how it is to be implemented, ato na lang ‘to. The government has to be serious in implementing the law for us to be able to make that as strong tool for implementation for the rights of the IP.
- MS. RICHELLE DANLAY
QUESTION: I just want to share about those discriminations we encountered in
studying in USEP Mintal Campus. Truly as an IP, yes, we really experienced or
encountered so much discrimination. Some fellow students in this city while we
are passing along the streets, they keep on saying and shouting “Ito ba sila ang
mga ipis rather than calling us IP’s.” Truly, it is very striking on our part. It really
insulted us. Why should they call us that in fact that all of us are students of the
university. So truly, discrimination is the one we experienced these days. One more experience is that they keep on telling us that “Bawog lagi na ilang tingog.” I think it’s not our fault if we have different accent in saying words because we have our own language, we have our own accent that’s why we cannot really be like them which could really say things properly. It hurt us but I think the best way to overcome this discrimination is to keep on telling ourselves that we should not be discouraged in what they are telling but rather we keep on reminding ourselves that we should be proud because we have our own culture that we could we could be proud of.
- RESPONSE TO THE THOUGHTS OF RICHELL
As one of the faculty members working with Pamulaan, it is really true. We are having a hard time in conditioning or establishing a closer relationship between our regular students and the Pamulaan especially that it is the first time in the university having IP groups. Para bagang merong kakaibang feeling ang general studentry. At the start of the school year last June, so many hurting experiences have been felt by our Pamulaan students and we just tried for around 3 to 4 months. Thanks to university for the Pamulaan faculty members at the back. UI really salute them. They are not only playing the role of a classroom teacher but extending beyond that. And now, we are able to establish a good relationship because we make use of discrimination acts of our general students as challenge to the Pamulaan. In fact, by now, am proud to say that the Pamulaan students is now being considered as the model section at USEP Mintal in terms of attitude, responsibility and after the 1st semester, two students gained the scholarship from the university and three of them gained the tuition privilege.
- MS. LILIBETH GALVEZ (Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology)
QUESTION: I would like to address this question to Ms. Gonos. I am just curious of the IP Curriculum through the assistance of BEAM. Although we have not seen the curriculum as to how it is designed. How does it differ from the standard of the general curriculum and I would like to know also if there are instruments which measure how effective is the curriculum. Do these students who will be products of the IP curriculum be equal when it comes to competence with those using the standard DepEd curriculum.
ANSWER: NORMA GONOS
Early on, I presented to you the framework and the pictures. Actually it stands side by side with the RBEC the existing curriculum. And as I was saying that we go beyond the matrices but we have a matrix for that. We have the BEC after that column, we have all the learning competencies in BEC so that we did not put how many minutes because it has to run side by side and we are hoping that this will promote peaceful and harmonious relationship between the non-IP and the IP’s because the teachers are also told to implement the current curriculum so we just have to put those integration for each topic including the core values and the methodology. And we already have the tool in the form of self-assessment and we all yet to develop before June 2007 this year and that will be this April where we are going to call in the subject supervisor for them, to set with us to be able to come up with the tool for monitoring and evaluation. So we will start the monitoring and evaluation by September for 1st and 2nd year. For grades 1 to 4. Why? Because grade 6 and 5, 3rd and 4th year high school are yet to be implemented this June. So they will be subject to monitoring and evaluation for the next school year. But for now, we have already concluded our monitoring of all the schools implementing the IP Curriculum and we have this most significant change documented coming from the students for teaching this IP Curriculum and in these private schools and coming from the parents so the parents have their own significant stories to tell that they are now, their low self-esteem is now regained because of this that the teachers are already trying to invite them and let them to participate in all activities not unlike before.
- PROF. BERNARDITA BULA
QUESTION: Although I have not yet seen any curriculum for this program, I am expecting that your curriculum is indigenized, right? So if you have an indigenized curriculum that curriculum is in the medium of the community but you have given us an idea that your students have a problem of the English language. Why English when indigenization means you should treat English as a foreign language not as the medium of instruction. If we really are to indigenized curriculum in the DepEd because it is community based school system. That school should operate within the territory of IP for instance; if you have a curriculum for the Matigsalogs in Marilog then that curriculum should be a curriculum using the Matigsalog language. As we are doing with the Mandaris, the Moslem community, our major is not in peace and development as content of Islamic values and Koranic education. So if you are going to indigenize that you use the Indigenous knowledge and technologies that are existing in all of the 71 major languages of the IP’s in Mindanao.
ANSWER: MS. NORMA GONOS
I think indigenizing doesn’t mean we don’t want to learn the English language. Because we also have defined with the IP what do they eman bu indigenization or developing IP Curriculum. Now that’s why we have to stand side by side with the BEC because we are still using dapat malaman ng tribo kung paano mga-English.” I don’t think that the only way we can go out and talk to people and let them understand who we are and what we are.
REPLY: PROF. BERNARDITA BULA
I am not saying Ms. Gonos that we should not teach English but we treat English as a foreign language because we found out that teaching Japanese for example 1 month, the students will learn conversational and functional Japanese ad it is also true with our students that English should not be a medium of instruction but use English as a foreign language in the classroom. If we are going to experience in the classroom is the real indigenous curriculum.
REPLY: MS. NORMA GONOS
I agree with you that’s why we make the curriculum very generic in presentation when it comes with IP core values because when it is going to be implemented in Mandaya it has to be implemented in a Mandaya culture. So we can’t be making 71 curriculums to present to you so that it is up to the teacher in the implementation to the specific of the integration.
- PARTICIPANT A
One of the new presentations you mentioned that training teachers as one of the things you should do for the program. I think most important is as part of the advocacy is the institutionalization of the program and I believe the best way to do is to institutionalize it through teacher college education. That is the extent of your advocacy among that line.
ANSWER: MS. NORMA GONOS
We are going in that. As before the BEAM project ends of the DepEd, the association of the educators was in the implementation of the effective delivery of IP Curriculum. Maybe since this institute would now be under the structure of the DepEd and the OIC Director of Region 11. We and BEAM are working on that for it could be able to access funding directly from DepEd when the BEAM project ends. Maybe this university and DepEd may now talk to these graduates and will be motivated to go back to the community and teach as public school teachers pero depende lang yun kung papasa.
Is CHED involved to the one you are talking about? Because the teacher’s program are under CHED. It has to come from the CHED as part of an executive order.
REPLY: NORMA GONOS
I don’t know of any special order right now but I have to say frankl na we did not able to involve CHED in this undertaking. Present in the development are the members of the consortium, the Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao, DepEd, Assissi Development Foundation, Pamulaan Center, NCIP and the MedCo, and the Lumad heads of Davao City. They are all members of the consortium that recently, they all have agreed that if we are going to turn this over to DepEd and it has to be put under their structure.
9. PARTICIPANT B
I am very much interested about your comment on Research which are not validated on research on IP’s. Fir the USEP research and development programs or projects, it requires a thorough evaluation before the conduct of the research. It could be funded by the university. But there are some researches which are done by graduate students in the university has no control on it. And I agree with you that it needs to be validated before its dissemination. My concern is, since your in the process of developing the curriculum on IP’s. I think we need to know your institute research agenda or the priorities so that the university could also complement with your thrust and come up with a better perspective in the development of the curriculum. My only query is many I know what would be your thrust from your institute and your commission that we can set and have a collaborative work with the university.
ANSWER: MS. NORMA GONOS
The institute under the consortium has already agreed that we also have to make use of the existing documents and researches from whoever who would be able to lend. Right now, we are in documentation. Ako po talaga ang pumupunta sa community and then I explain to my fellow IP’s our objective so that I have this learning from past researches that they tend to hide things. Kahit yung mga expression lang nila. Kapag “uya ng uya” ang ata, ibig sabihin “oo” pero hindi mo alam na uya meaning yes pero may sasabihin pa ito. So we are currently in the process of coming up with a document of all the 10 tribes implementing this IP curriculum. We already have the Matigsalog. We are using your product of research like that of Ms. Alan. We respect present researches. We are not saying na i-run ko talaga yung validation but I’ll say that we welcome you participation.
Beware of people saying, “I can guide you to the community.” You should also take into consideration Anong klaseng tribo ito? Tribo lang bas a dugo? Anong klaseng worldview ito? Mas maganda pa rin gamitin ang researches ninyo ngayon but that is kung tatanggapin ng community na tama. Kasi pinepresent din naming yung laman. Magandang avenue ito dahil yung mga researches ninyo is a product. And what is good in research today, we did not put our name there as the researcher. But the ownership of formation should be coming from them. So kami lalabas lang na documentor. But we should owe them their ownership.
10. MS. MERCEDES ALAN
I am Mercedes Alan and I am a Bagobo princess. Now this is a serious problem of the language as a medium of instruction. Now if we are going to indigenize the English language, it does not mean don’t touch the IP students about English. But what I mean here is the process of presenting the language in the sense that, it is common. When you are told a certain language is foreign, it would be hard for the students to understand it. I have many evidences for this one knowing that my relatives are coming from the remote areas where English is not properly taught. Well, my nephews and nieces live at home to study college. Now, I usually give them a review. It is obvious that they are not familiar with the language. I believe that the IP’s are very intelligent. Kaya lang they don’t know how to express it in the English language. But when I review them using Cebuano, anong comment nila—Kadali lang pala ng English. And when I have given them the exam, they all passed. They thanked me a lot for what I have done for using the Cebuano language in teaching English. Sinasabi mo na we have to indigenize and yet we don’t use our own language. So parang hindi matutulungan ang mga estudyante. Just imagine from 1st year to 4th year, they ae going to express in English yung mga formation of the sentences and the rest. Kaya I hope this will be taken into consideration an oh with our present leaders of the Pamulaan, you could make a way to present to the DepEd na we really need Cebuano because this is the common language to be used in presenting Eng 1 and 2 and then sa Eng 3 and 4, saka na tayo mag English because this is already the application
PANEL REACTION ON IP CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Juana Paula Subalan
I am Juana Paula Subalan from Bukidnon. I graduated from the Xavier University with bachelor’s degree major in Social Anthropology, funded by an organization for Philippine Lumads.
It was difficult to interact in a strange place, in a culture different from mine. I felt discriminated, being ignorant of the language being used by the group I was in. My grades were low. I could not ask my teachers. I could not ask questions. I was afraid I would be laughed at. I was labeled as “tga-bukid”and witch. Sometimes, I would attempt to show off a “lumad” skill, just to be different. Sometimes, I tried to fit in. However, I did not forget being a “lumad”. I joined an organization for the lumads.
I was able to finish my schooling, although I was feeling that I did not deserve to be admitted to a school. I wanted to be free-in expressing myself.
Now, I am a teacher. As I teach, I really demonstrate to my students the value of education to our community and culture; that they have the right to education that would protect them from abuse.
As a community, our place needs a leader who is proud to be a “Lumad”. Education has changed my nature and my personhood. Though we are different, we believe in a team.
I am Jeneth Layocan and a graduate of AB Sociology from the Bukidnon State College. I was asking myself if I experienced being discriminated but I tried to behave like individuals in the mainstream.
However, after I attended an exposure, I began to appreciate my being as a Lumad. I began to appreciate my state as well as the value of education. I tried to motivate myself to improve.
Now I am a volunteer in the Pamulaan Center and I’ve convinced myself that if others can, why can’t I.
INTERNATIONALIZING THE CURRICULUM FOR INDIGENOUS
By: Dr. Linda Kay Mizell
Faculty internationalize the curriculum to show students the similarities and differences in cultures, nations, political systems, and values. Teaching students to evaluate competing claims and information joins their local heritage with the global context to encourage responsible action toward others. Starting with their tradition ways of processing knowledge in their particular cultural context, students expand their critical thinking and decision-making to consider the larger world as it impacts their personal, familial, and communal lives. Cross-cultural comparisons, research from other indigenous groups, and experiences from worldwide neighbors place them in historical, political, and social communities but with a global perspective. Indigenes learn to appropriate the opportunities afforded by globalization such as international communication, transnational organizations, and rapidly developing technologies, for example, distance education delivery, and integrated financial and trade markets. Because of the global nature of competition, they must develop skills that allow them to function in the world of the twenty-first century. While retaining their own language and culture, they see the larger world and the interconnections. Students gain a broader perspective, benefit from the comparative strengths of other nations, and learn strategies for ameliorating ethnic, religious, racial, and political conflicts.
Because students today live in a world of transnational agencies and organizations, global communications, and international issues and solutions, higher education should prepare them with the skills and tools necessary to be productive and civically active participants in their local, regional, national, and international communities. One method that faculty may use to help prepare students to adapt to this global community is to internationalize the curriculum, thereby giving them the interest, knowledge, and practice in the affairs of a larger world. The objectives of internationalizing the curriculum seek to develop an awareness and knowledge of similarities in human cultures; differences in nations, political systems, and cultures; and the interdependence of human groups. Further, it advocates valuing the rich variety of people, applying an understanding of global culture, acquiring the tools to function in a global environment, and seeing the interaction of the local and the global, the traditional and the modern.
Goals: Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills
The goals of internationalizing the curriculum address students’ attitudes, their knowledge, and their skills. In the area of attitudes, the methodology helps students to see a need for global education, identify personal areas in need of an enlarged perspective, reduce prejudice and enmities, be sensitive to issues others face, and retain an indigenous identity with a fuller understanding of its significance. In the area of knowledge, infusing the curriculum with a global awareness teaches students to understand the global relations of politics, economy, ecology, culture, and communications; to understand the non-Western perspective; to study the power and process of language; to learn about customs, philosophies, and religions; to gain knowledge about one’s own culture and identity; and to understand one’s own beliefs in the context of other perspectives. In the area of skills, the curriculum should develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in the students, teach them to assess competing claims and data based on cogent reasoning and clear evidence, and help them to acquire strategies for conciliation and conflict resolution as well as to learn interpersonal skills, to identify ethical issues that might arise in personal and professional international contexts, and to find strategies for helping to solve world problems.
To evaluate the learning effectively, faculty members should include in their instruction clear measures of performance. Students want to know the expectations for an assignment and its link to both local and global knowledge, so they can meet them and work within the boundaries of the task. Further, the curriculum should build on traditional ways of knowing and consider learning styles, using, for example, the traditional epistemology of indigenous people such as oral-based, narrative-structured, and holistically-understood learning. It should use a variety of assessment techniques including those of peers, faculty, and themselves, including anecdotal testimonies from the students. Both learning and the assessment of it should engage students in authentic encounters to demonstrate newly learned skills. Assessment also should reflect the program’s goals, philosophy, and pedagogy for indigenous higher education.
Teaching Methodologies for Internationalizing the Curriculum
Methodologies consider the variety of learning styles that students exhibit and over the semester an application of myriad techniques help ensure that all students understand the course content and learn to apply the skills. The following list suggests some ways that the curriculum may be internationalized without sacrificing the local knowledge and culture.
1. Entrance and exit slips with global question (3X5 card or micro-essay)
2. First day writing sample on global issues, current controversy
3. Videotape students presenting an introduction on a topic (agriculture in Third World
countries, land ownership)
4. Brainstorming on issue (terrorism)
5. Maps (giving context and surroundings) (See Appendix A)
6. Study a word’s history from other languages, examining suffixes, roots
7. Images (transparencies, slides, photographs, websites, art)
8. Reader response chart with cross-cultural text (See Appendix B)
9. Interviews (immigrants, international students, dual identity students, multinational
company, foreign tourists)
10. Video clips of foreign films
11. Student produced video. Powerpoint on international issue.
12. Inventory expertise on campus (commitment, experience, education)
13. Storytelling—stories from elders, other ethnic groups such as the Kurds
14. Interdisciplinary/international projects/courses
15. Kaffeeclatsch (directed discussion over coffee)
16. Cross-Cultural Collaboration (Appendix C)
17. Case studies/hypothetical situations in other cultures (Appendix D)
18. Games—simulations such as elections
19. CD’s or tapes with music from other countries
20. Guest experts, community visitors
21. Service learning (tutoring in literacy programs, working on the reservation or in an
22. Cultural references as examples
23. Mapping (images of concepts such as democracy)
24. Research (use global issues)
25. Internet (critical thinking and evaluation)
26. Community projects (Indigenous Institute, Davao Museum, IP Cultural Center)
27. Oral histories—ethnography
28. Newspaper articles (Mindanao Times, New York Times)
29. News programs (comparison of values)
30. Field-based education (trip to museum or site)
31. City as Text (studying the demographics, patterns, needs, customs of a village, town or city)
32. Drama (play from other country)
33. Newsletters from local organizations, IP tribes, advocacy groups
34. Telephone, email, chat rooms, with classes abroad
35. Peer editing with students across the world
36. Readers’ Theater using work from another culture
37. Film festival (international films, locally produced films, student productions)
38. Readers’ Theatre (works form other traditions)
39. Experiments to study people (use APA rules for permission to include participants
40. Surveys such as needs assessment for a village
41. Questionnaires for community members, students, leaders, youth, etc.
42. Ethnic celebrations (Indigenous People Festival)
43. Debates from two perspectives (Palestinian/Israeli; Shiite/Sunni, Moros/National
44. Biographies, profiles
45. Fiction (local and other culture)
46. Posters, advertisements with cultural values
47. Samples/examples (political rhetoric, fallacies in media)
48. Learning logs (thought, notes, questions, personal reactions
49. Description of organization of a group, a use of space, and a concept of time
50. Response to quotation accepting or rejecting (world leader’s position)
51. Metacognition notes (how reached conclusions or solutions
52. Record of public event (elections, inauguration, and coup)
53. Discussion of intermediate conclusion (a condition in the world) to ask, “Unless
54. Predict an outcome to an event (an embargo, retaliation, treaty, strike)
55. Pro/con response to position with list of reasons for and reasons against (Leftist
position, communist, Socialist, Conservative, National)
56. Fact/value list (list what known to be a fact on the left and what suspected on right
57. Complete open-ended sentences (As a Native American, I value. . . ; I define
democracy as. . . .)
58. Use disposable camera to shoot photo essay of village dances, weaving, rituals,
customs in another person’s tribe or culture
59. Write about turning points in life (visiting in another culture, starting the university)
60. Write about obituaries, tombstones, and burial customs in different countries and
compare them to local traditions.
61. Synthesize two articles (indigenous/national)
62. Sequence of why questions (answer why question in a sentence, ask why, answer,
63. Use prop or module (musical instrument, costume, and abacus)
64. Duel perspective of performance or procedure (technician in two countries)
(See Appendix F)
65. Background knowledge probe (Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Outcomes)
66. Dialectic reading listing gone religion’s opinion on the left and another on the right.
67. Anticipation survey with “Likely” and “Unlikely” (If X occurs, then likely Y will
occur or if X occurs, then it is unlikely that Z will occur)
68. Silent spaces for reflection and connections
69. Puzzles, riddles, paradoxes to begin day’s topic
70. Interactive syllabi (online syllabus)
71. Life experiences (stories from elders, parents, siblings, autobiographies of world
72. Electronic forums using the internet
73. Field journals of local flora and fauna and other environments where they occur (See
74. Study another language (heritage language and an international language)
75. Mythology, legendary character, or ritual (arts, movement, works, architecture,
76. Imagination (travel across miles and through years; feelings, images, thoughts, memories)
77. Contrast a country’s antiquity and modernity
78. Describe process of surviving, adapting, or assimilating into a culture
79. Study interpersonal communication in different cultures
80. Identity analysis (See Appendix G)
Because students, including indigenes, living in the 21st century will confront the reality of an interdependent world, higher education should internationalize the curriculum to provide students with a global perspective and an understanding of other cultures in the context of their own traditions and to educate them for global responsibility.
Maps to Give Context
Looking at the inset, what continent is the Philippines in?
What seas surround the Philippines?
Readers’ Response Chart
Interpret the quotations from 3 cultures to give the meaning and your reaction.
Quotation Meaning of Quotation Reaction
- Tambia an oh from Davao, Philippines
- August 9, 2006, from Carlos R. Munda
- Are these common markings for Tambja an oh?
Locality: outer reef wall, 40 ft, Philippines, Pacific, 24 July 2006, reef wall. Length: 1.5 inches. Photographer: Carlos R. Munda, Jr.
Is this species located in other environments? If so where? What do the two locations have in common? Contact a student or a biologist in the distant locale to learn about the distinctions, patterns, eating, and mating of that species. If the species occurs only locally, consider why.
Read the following scenarios and see if you can identify the problem in each.
George Tailor works as a supervisor for an engineering company in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In the UK he had a reputation for speaking his mind and by doing so getting the best out of his staff. At the current project in Riyadh he supervises 12 British staff and nearly 50 Saudi staff. After a few months George has become increasingly frustrated by what he sees a less than effective Saudi team. Their lack of competence and slow work pace is worrying George. What should he do to try and bring the Saudi staff back into line?
- Publicly reprimand a few of the Saudi staff to ensure the message gets across to them all. By doing so he will also establish who is boss.
- Pick one member of the Saudi staff to explain his worries to. This staff member will then be used to relay George’s opinions to the rest.
∙ Speak to as many members of staff individually or in small groups, explaining his viewpoint and encouraging them to better their work practice and enthusiasm.
- Report them to his manager, a Saudi national, and let him deal with them.
Cross-Cultural Environmental Issue
The Philippine eagle, one of the world’s largest eagles, is disappearing due to the loss of its forest habitat.
- From Gary Strieker
CNN Environmental Correspondent, Aug. 14, 2000
- DAVAO, Philippines (CNN) — In the Philippines, every creature surely fears the airborne predator at the top of the food chain, the Philippine eagle. But even the world’s largest bird of prey faces the risk of extinction.
- Like the American bald eagle, the Philippine eagle serves as a national symbol. Yet it is critically endangered because most of its forest habitat has been destroyed.
What measures have the United States and the Philippines taken to save the endangered eagle?
Identity Analysis Name __________
Variables to consider in determining your identity:
- A. Nationality/Citizenship
- B. Religion
- C. Country
- D. Race
- E. Ethnic Background
- F. City or Town
- G. State or Region
- H. Neighborhood or side of town
- I. Political Affiliation
- J. Birthplace/ or Place raised
- K. Family
- L. Work/Job
- M. Linguistic Group (native language)
- N. Tribe or Clan
- O. Gender
- P. Species
- Q. Name
- Give your priorities below of at least the top five variables that shape your identity as you see it.
- Priority Order of the Concept.
PANEL REACTION ON INTERNATIONALIZING THE CURRICULUM OF INDIGENOUS HIGHER EDUCATION
A. Dr. Wilfredo Mamocod
The indigenous peoples are most DDU’s people on earth. They own the land but sadly, they are deprived of higher education. Many reached only up to high school but only the lucky ones are able to reach college. There are NGO’s who are interested in bringing them to the mainstream but only short- lived like the minority international government of every country should set aside money for the higher education of these indigenous peoples, especially the first two years of college where it needed lots of adjustment and motivation for them to go into mainstream of higher education.
My reaction to internationalizing the curriculum of higher education by Dr. Linda Kay Mizell is making the indigenous joined the mainstream of higher education and make them global.
Making the indigenous part of the global culture is something that every country should take interest in because these IPs own the land from the onset of civilization to the present. Why they become the minority? Whatever we accomplished as a people whether nationally or internationally let as involve them because they form part of our socio-cultural heritage. It is our own primary duty and responsibility to make them part of the mainstream of civilized people of every country.
Mindanao being the island on earth that has the most number of indigenous people should take lead in internationalizing the curriculum for higher education of the IP’s. It is high time that the USEP being the only state university in Southeastern Philippines should take the lead role in making the indigenous part of our educational system. However, it takes a certain Dr Mizell to spearhead the internalizing of higher education. The curriculum should to cater their needs because there are local technologies that can’t be duplicated but need to be enhanced or cultivated. Mindanao, being the seat of the IPs republic should appreciate the native’s culture, arts and music which are losing nowadays. The advent of development should balance the richness of the IPs being the owner of the land. We can say that this is a marriage culture, an effort which should be supported by all people in the quest for economic, social and political aspirations of the Filipino nation.
Again, we praise the Minority Care International with Dr. Mizell doing the legwork. I say it’s costly and expensive for its money time and resources to flourish as we link internally.
March 12 (P.M.)
- PARTICIPANT C
Mine is not a question but a request to Linda. If it would be possible for us to have a copy of your 80 ways so that we could go around the world like you.
ANSWER: DR. LINDA KAY MIZELL
- PROF. PONCIANO BENNAGEN
This is addressed to Dr. Mizell. One of the early fears that is generated by globalization is the homogenization of cultures but a contrary development can placed in terms of the assertion of local identities and I’m looking to the presentation on Indigenous Higher Education from this morning to this afternoon. Do I get to try that in Indigenous Education in its totality is also a kind of educational and a radical and practical critic of the globalization and we all know that cultural identities can easily be transformed to political identities become a red flag of aggression that could generate these hostilities that is taking place in the Philippines. On the other hand, identities can also be white flag of peace and harmony from being attempted Mindanao. From your experience in the U.S. which is it going? Is it offering an alternative critic to the homogenizing forces?
ANSWER: DR. LINDA KAY MIZELL
I think that there is a great fear of globalization as seen as the threat. If not among people among the environment. You can go to remote cities in the U.S. and except for a few monuments that is essentially the same, the same happening like here as well. But I think this is a new interesting phenomena that has an interesting reaction to it that people had taken interest in their research and call them to ask, “ What do we value?” in terms of languages, in terms of ethnic background until in one hand, we have a lot of homogenization going on. We have ethnic community and we have a Chinese community and in those towns that any languages are spoken, the stores are using different languages but this is a part of a globalized world. But then, if you have certain area in the city, you see all these individuals very ethnic community and they are fully concerned in preserving their language. By speaking the language and by knowing the culture, a very good example is an animal in Texas. One of the traditions of the Mexican culture is to kill a goat and on the particular holiday, they have killed the goat and keep it hanging on a tree and so the policemen—a Mexican who knows the culture and the language says, “I know that it is against the law but no problem, just take it down.” Until we have these communities, ethnic groups, celebrating their ethnicity, at the same time, we have homogenization occurring.
- MR. MACARIO CATADAL
QUESTION: This program is very new in fact, this is the first to hear such. And I am glad that Benguet State University has been invited. While DepEd is new, I wonder if you have a road map for this program, of this endeavor so that we will be able to avoid, so that we will reach towards our destination. Is there such a thing? Can we put a road map for this program?
ANSWER: DR. LINDA KAY MIZELL
That would be a wonderful initiative coming out of this conference wherein we put together the literature, the research. It is going on around the world. In my studies, like in Australia, Peru, Hawaii and there have been strategies that are successful and I think that it is a very wonderful thing to come up with the stakeholder here to bring together their ideas together with the teachers, parents and students here. So I think it will be a very wonderful outcome for this conference. But I don’t have a roadmap yet.
- MR. MARCOS F. MONDERIN
QUESTION: This is a reaction of what we are doing now. I would like to take this opportunity, as a very good chance for everyone for all of us here who call ourselves to be sensitive enough in the sensitivity for the IP’s. While you are talking “Internationalizing the Higher Education for the IP’s and the irony here in the Philippines so while we are trying to think on how to internationalize the IP Curriculum, this occasion should also serve as an inspiration to develop a good pathway or roadmap for a true education for the IP’s so that we could link with this internationalizing the IP higher education.
ANSWER: DR. EDNA JALOTJOT
The trend of thought when this topic is particularly placed in is that as higher education institutions as we work on the curriculum of higher education for IP that we maintain quality of education that the results of the education that we will be offering to them, to these groups of people will be globally acceptable. For instance, a graduate of elementary education in IP will have the same competency whether these students come from an IP or lowland community should be watered down. The whole idea of including this topic Internationalizing the Curriculum because as we work as universities in giving our service for access to education in higher education in a way it’s a warning that the curriculum we develop should not be watered down. It is in facing the level of competency of our IP’s. Just as Ms. Norma Gonos talked about, still considering the basic education curriculum, however, there are add-ons or there is an expansion of the basic education curriculum established by DepEd by including values, ways of knowing like spiritual beliefs or games. In addition, if we talk about Sports in basic education curriculum in addition to learning about basketball and the like. The children should also know the games of community they came from so that the whole ideas of teaching this topic as the conference chair of this program.
5. DR. ALAND MIZELL
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Globalization is the flow of info. It is like a river and it comes along offering balance within the IP community culture. Someone also asked question why we should teach English. How will the IP students compete if they dwell in this mentality that they stick to one language? You can be better IP’s but also you can be better and competitive through out the world. We can’t isolate ourselves. Today, if we don’t properly use globalization properly as a tool. For instance, information, if we don’t use it properly, it can be backward to the IP community especially with the minority as well. Today, English is the international language so we must all learn it but it doesn’t necessarily mean that you will give up your identity. Foreign language must be English. I think we should give the students multi-thinking not just one because if you say internationalize, today is these graduates will represent themselves this will encourage the next generation to be proud of their brothers who made it into for instance, in the senate or congress. So I think we should encourage into global thinking not just dwell into the community. I am not saying that we should not respect our own culture but I think if we learn through global thinking we will develop. Education is the key.
6. MS. OFELIA DURANTE
I just want to add to what Dr. Jalotjot said in relation to Dr. Linda’s topic. In Peace education, we believe in this, “Think globally, Act Locally” We have issues—our IP’s have issues which are not our own alone. There are other countries experiencing the same problem and their practices on how they address this problem and their practices so how they address this problem can be models that we can also apply. We deepen our knowledge of our own people while at the same time, learning what is happening around the world so that we don’t become related in our own communities.
7. DR. SURLITA SUMUGAT
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: From the point of view of Pamulaan, because Pamulaan Center as a college education program for the IP’s at the very onset as adopted principle of Internationalization—that is it was presented, that it would include global issues and in fact one of the strategies that we have already used and already using the inter-cultural exchange of our students and youth from the U.S. A part of that is the three month immersion of volunteer service overseas at Pamulaan Center. We consider that as a very significant means of learning for our students and why? Because internationalizing which is from the point of view of thinking globally and acting globally is also necessary as part of the characteristic of a true developed IP. The basis of what Ms. Gonos presented is based on the relations of all being. So that by being personal, it could be universal. Secondly, before we established Pamulaan, we conducted two multi-sectoral consultations in Luzon and in Mindanao. The IP themselves, IP leaders, community workers, who participated in the consultation emphasized that they want a strengthened ownership, pride and appreciation of their own culture and at the same time, interaction of all cultures.
- MR. MARCOS F. MONDERIN
REPLY: I am just worried that I am misinterpreted when I said that this conference is a very good chance for everyone to improve or intensify our vision of developing our higher IP education. Second, when you were telling about the reason why we have internationalized people, we understand, there should really be knowledgeable about things. However with the curriculum presented, I noticed that there is no computer and so on why? Because it is ancestral domain based curriculum. It is ladderized. It was based on our experience in Cotabato. The Notre Dame University offers scholarships to the IP’s. After graduation, they did not come back to their ancestral domain because while they are in school, they don’t have laboratory, experience on the site, on their own community. For all their years in the university, they refused to be assigned in their community. We don’t want to go back because we don’t have electricity. So what happened? In fact, this is an experience as mentioned by our Dean, the areas that they are being monitored by our centered is now being encroached by multi-national companies. Why do we come up with this idea? Because we want the IP’s to have any heart in returning to their ancestral domain, to the community. And what happened to the area? There are no houses. There was mentioned by Dr. Tacardon earlier. We have to sensitize the graduates to let them return to their area.
- PROF. PONCIANO BENNAGEN
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: This is getting to be very exciting and I think that is why we are her for. Maybe we should act in solidarity, not only with IP’s here as well as with the IP’s elsewhere rather than come out with statement that appears to be written in stone. I offer a few pints to interest more sharing because I don’t think anyone here encouraging them to go back to the community and isolate themselves. That’s not the point. One, we ought to recognize the IP’s everywhere are diverse. I think an objective is to enable us to celebrate diversity in the spirit of respect. Because if we don’t synthesize this diversity, there will be a tendency to impose to be imperial but having said that the concept of internationalizing ought to be contested because in this clear cut especially coming from our spokesperson with all due respect. It could be an avenue for colonization and I think it is an important point to probably appear to overflow but on this stage we could respect that. So let us open to possibilities that here on earth the people are diverse. Cultural diversity is the other side of biological diversity. In affirming our indigenous identity, we should acquire other skills that will enable us to deal with a globalized world. I think that this is a response to talks on roadmap because by shared experiences, we could identify the danger signs along the way.
SERVICE LEARNING FOR INDIGENOUS HIGHER EDUCATION
By: Dr. Linda Kay Mizell
A Carnegie Foundation report on undergraduate education in America claims, “A good college affirms that service to others is a central part of education.” Service-learning, an educational experience allowing students to participate in solutions to identified community or university needs, promotes further understanding of course content and a sense of civic responsibility. The community-based learning fosters moral, cognitive, and ethical understanding of social issues and people. It connects academic study with community service through structured reflection in three areas: enhanced academic learning, leadership development, and democratic participation. As such it can effectively supplement classroom academics for indigenous students in their critical thinking, problem-solving, and civic and community responsibility. For example, reservation projects designed with participation, reflective research papers, and service document learning experiences. Diverse projects meet the variety of learning styles, cultural differences, and varied disciplines as well as build on indigenous knowledge and equip students with traditional skills. Through task engagement, service-learning offers a practicum for the theoretic curricula by involving indigenous students in their communities’ social and economic enterprises.
According to a statement in The Carnegie Foundation’s findings, The Undergraduate Experience in America, “A good college affirms that service to others is a central part of education.” To inculcate a desire to serve in students, higher education offers a component referred to as “service learning.” By this, educators refer to an educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community and/or university needs. The activity allows the students to reflect on their service in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content and/or an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. The learning experience should increase students’ moral, cognitive, and ethical understanding of other people and of social issues. For indigenous students, connecting their formal learning to their communities strengthens their identity and enhances their interaction in the larger world. Linking all involved parties in the structuring of the service proves critical to the success of the program. According to the No Child Left behind Act 2001 for Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaskan Indian Education, service learning refers to a method to link active learning with service for an actual community need. In linking indigenous education with service, it is a method (1) under which students learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet actual community needs and are coordinated in collaboration with the school and the community, (2) that is integrated into students’ academic curriculum and provides structured time for a student to think, talk, or write about what they did and saw during the actual service activity, (3) that provides students with opportunities to use newly acquired skills and knowledge in real-life situations in their own communities, (4) that enhances what is taught in school by extending student learning beyond the classroom and into the community, thereby helping foster the development of a sense of caring for others, and (5) that is supported by regular assessment to provide feedback and guide improvement (http://servicelearning.org/filemanager/download/36/title_vii.pdf). For example, a project in Miami, Oklahoma, involves students in work at Tar Creek Superfund site, a toxic waste clean-up site thereby benefiting their community and their educational growth.
Planning the Project
At the core of its purpose, service learning helps students develop critical thinking and problem solving skills, their values, their social and personal growth, and their civic, community, and global responsibility. For example, as a part of its historic mission as a land-grant university, the University of Minnesota, its American Indian Studies links a service component to academics. Serving Native communities remains at the center of its commitment to service on the reservation and in urban Indian communities. In a northern artic community in Point Hope, Alaska, students learn about weather, astronomy, physics, ice conditions, and wind directions because the village’s survival depends on whaling. Consequently, students learn to make traditional boats and driftwood paddles in addition to the methods of navigation in an environment with limited technological resources. In discussions with other students and the elders, students reflect on their learning.
A service learning program usually has structured requirements to ensure the best learning experience for the students and those they serve and the integrity of the academic courses they are studying. These components require that they attend orientation and workshops; evaluate the best site and group for their purpose; work with faculty, community leaders, and family to develop a coherent and mutually beneficial program; devise or read lessons or plans of action; keep a log describing the experience and the date they accomplished it; and write a summary reflecting on the experience. Although they can overlap, generally the programs divide into two categories: the charity approach in which students volunteer their direct service to social service agencies or humanitarian efforts and the justice approach which has as its goal the social transformation of students, often involving civic or political action. In addition, students develop values that affect their personal, academic, and professional lives (Chapdelaine 2005).
Reflection on the experience constitutes a crucial aspect of the program. Students are encouraged to think, talk, and write and their experiences as a volunteer in journal writing where they express their experiences, thoughts, feelings, and observations; in reflective sessions or small group discussions of issues related to the service; in writing portfolios; and/or in in-class presentations. The reflective journal records daily events with a description of feelings and perceptions including the first impressions of service, questions that came to mind, and ideas about events. It also lists action for the next contact in an agenda setting form. In reflective sessions students meet to discuss their experiences, including their successes and failures, in a kind of formative evaluation. They mention difficulties or problems and discuss possible alternatives or solutions giving input to each other gleaned from their critical thinking and problem solving and from their own experiences. If the faculty member requires a writing portfolio, students compile their journal entries, their notes from discussion sessions, and perhaps an essay or report and submit this collection to the professor to demonstrate their observations, acquisition of skills, and learning gained in the service learning. At the end of the semester students often write a formal essay describing their initial assumptions and their learning as a result of the service.
To capture the students’ insights learned from the service experience, faculty involved in service learning projects often require an essay at the end of the semester. The students’ text often begins by describing the project, explaining assumptions they had before the project and lessons they gained from the service, offering recommendations to improve the project, and indicating future plans for service after the semester is completed. Depending on whether the courses are conducted in the heritage or acquired language, the essay should follow the language of instruction but can be negotiated between the student and faculty member.
The Oral Presentation
Generally near the end of the semester students give an oral presentation in class offering a description of their duties and responsibilities, the work situation and environment, and the goals of agency, program, and site. A second part would give the evaluation of the components of learning, objectives met, reflection on the agency or program, experience of working in a community setting or the overall benefit to both the individual and the tribe or community, self-knowledge, advice for future students, and an in-depth explanation of the academic knowledge acquired or the supplement to the course content. A third section gives the integration, noting (1) changes of opinion about local schools, government, agencies, and interest groups, (2) changes in evaluation of society, the political system, and ways of dealing with social problems, and (3) changes in educational goals, more meaningful classwork and readings, interest in public policy, and desire to vote or participate in democratic process.
Outcomes for Service Learning
The National Service-Learning Clearinghouse in America reports on research involving service combined with learning to show that students enjoyed having real responsibilities and continued their volunteerism after the formal program ended. In the planning stage of the service learning experience, faculty set outcomes for those who complete their service. Students gain valuable work experience by developing new skills. Indigenous students may learn agricultural techniques, arts and crafts such as weaving and jewelry making, veterinarian expertise, and knowledge about local flora and fauna as well as medicinal competence by working with local practitioners. In addition, students explore important social issues, both local and global, including such concerns as poverty, HIV, and illiteracy. Through their work they encounter the real world with its problems and solutions and take on new responsibilities and accountabilities. An additional outcome may be that students investigate a career in public service or a professional career as a result of having worked with a mentor or having “shadowed” a civic leader, a nurse, or a teacher. In this experience, the professionals or leaders serves as a role model for the student who works beside them for a given period of time initially in an observation role and then in an apprenticeship if the program allows for it. By involving themselves in service-learning, the youth depart from campus routines while contributing to the community, particularly an impoverished one that could benefit greatly from the volunteer hours of work and from the knowledge of students in higher education. The young people contribute ideas and energy to their own local environments or to the national or international arenas. In the process they discover, support, or promote an important cause such as the rights of indigenous people. Another outcome results when students break out of the isolation by adjusting to a new or larger community often allowing them to see others as similar to themselves or as having different traditions but cementing their desire to value their own. Through their service-learning experiences students enjoy their efforts in part because they make a difference in the lives of others, the environment, or the knowledge they impact.
Organizing Service Learning
After more than a decade of service learning participation, best practices suggest that programs start small, for example in one or two courses, that they find key people perhaps starting with people already involved in community service, and that they get help from faculty, administrators, teams, office personnel, and volunteers. The first step is to consider the community and its most crucial needs in order to use the talent and energy to full advantage. Strengthening the student’s community emerges as a primary factor in arranging service sites and projects. A conscientious planning process also carefully matches projects and students. Program directors and faculty serve as mentors to encourage the students in their work, to celebrate their accomplishments, and to recognize their success, but also to suggest alternatives and even to redirect them if the match does not work. Infused in the overall experience, evaluation and assessment becomes integral to formative learning for the students and for summative improvement of the program and thus for the next cycle of volunteers.
According to the findings of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 component on Service Learning, the service projects prove most successful when the planning includes the following steps:
- canvass the community to understand needs and willingness
- develop agreements for student and community participation
- explain how supervision will take place
- provide information about liability and how problems will be handled
- delineate the obligations of each party
- develop an appropriate service-learning curriculum
- design student materials and orientation processes
- train those responsible for implementing the projects
- connect service-learning curriculum through written and oral reflection opportunities, and
- conduct an evaluation to understand the program’s effectiveness
Service-learning programs gain integrity through systematic applications, documentation, and assessment. Paperwork remains a significant part of the program.
Volunteer Acceptance Form
A volunteer’s acceptance form gives information about the student and should include the student’s days and hours of service, the student’s duties, the community site’s address as well as the site supervisor’s name, job title, and telephone number. Personal data such as the student’s family members, tribe, and languages would be helpful but not required because of privacy.
Learning Plan Information
The learning plan should include the student’s name, the community site, and a telephone number if available. The learning objectives address: (1) knowledge and
understanding to be gained, the significance of the experience, and the
steps to implement the work plan, (2) skills including the significance of the skills and the process of implementation of the skill building, and (3) attitudes/values with the significance of these as well as the plan for implementing the development.
The richness of options for student learning depends on creative leadership among the administrators, faculty, students, and community participants. Reviewing community needs leads to initiatives that allow students to incorporate their classroom learning with traditional knowledge and practices.
The number of student organizations, agencies, organizations, religious groups, and civic programs looking for volunteers offer a myriad of opportunities for students to engage in service learning. Academic service learning may include on-campus teaching, tutoring, or working in labs. Generally 40 hours of community service linked to any course constitutes a fully-implemented service learning component. Students may also offer assistance to international programs, such as Minority Care International; service on the reservation or in the community whether surveying needs, gathering data, or working on projects; leadership development operations; aid to health care providers, institutes and museums, construction, literacy programs, environmental studies, conversation partners with person learning heritage language, and elections or campaigning. Humanitarian service offers support in feeding the poor, attending to health and nutritional needs, or making resources available. In the United States the National Service Learning Clearinghouse offers sample service learning projects for tribal assistance including work plans for some programs underway (http://www.servicelearning.org/resources/online_documents/tribal/sample_native_american_service-learning_projects/ ). For example, Alaskan Natives make science relevant in culturally adaptable ways using local knowledge such as cutting cordwood, firefighting, or investigating herring statistics’; New Mexican students provide historical context by researching the early Puebloan communities that exist as monuments now; or students in the Fur Seal Islands research fur seal rookeries to explore their historical roots in light of living cultures today. As part of a Learn and Serve program in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, peer clinics teach students about their cultural heritage in activities such as using a blowgun or restoring a Cherokee cemetery. In efforts to revive the Cherokee community, students conduct research or interviews and publish information on their tribe.
Guidelines from the No Child Left Behind Act 2001
As part of the No Child Left Behind Act 2001, the United States government linked Title VII for Indian, Native Alaskan, and Hawaiian Natives to service learning. The program enhances education for these students when the service learning programs attend to the following guidelines:
- reconnect Native youth to their traditions and community
- are culturally appropriate and supported by Native communities
- are youth-driven with all participants having a voice
- address students’ academic needs
- have the same high expectations for all students
- are sustainable and serve community identified needs
- meet high academic standards and equip participants with life skills
- allow for experiential learning across the curriculum
- encourage creative expression and celebrate collaborative work
- integrate nature and environmental issues into the curriculum
- include intergenerational components, such as involving tribal elders in the projects
- are research-oriented according to Native definitions
- focus on observation, reflection, and sharing of experiences
- foster self-efficacy among participating youth and
- produce tangible results that are regularly evaluated to advance quality practice (http://www.servicelearning.org/filemanager/download/36/title_vii.pdf)
Service-learning offers a particularly beneficial connection between learning and service for indigenous higher education. By integrating the curriculum and culture, ways of knowing, and needs of a community with service, faculty allow their students to enlarge their learning environments beyond the classroom to provide invaluable assistance to their home communities and to the larger world. Students stretch themselves by tackling social issues and learn from these real life experiences. A carefully developed and implemented program of service-learning builds on community values and traditions to prepare students for their life work and their involvement in a civil society locally, nationally, and globally.
Alaskan Native Knowledge Network. Fairbanks, Alaska: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, 2007.
Auerbach, Elsa. Community Partnerships. Alexandria: TESOL, 2002.
Boyer, Ernest. The Undergraduate Experience in America. The Carnegie Foundation for
the Advancement of Teaching. New York: Harper Collins, 1988.
Chapdelaine, Andrea, Ana Ruiz, Judith Warchal, and Carol Wells. Service-Learning
Code of Ethics. Bolton: Anker, 2005.
Dote, Lillian, Kevin Cramer, Nathan Dietz, and Robert Grimm, Jr.. College Students
Helping America. Corporation for National & Community Service,
Johnson, Cynthia. National Service-Learning Clearinghouse: Serve and Learn Project.
Corporation for National & Community Service. ETR Associates, 2003.
Ness, Jean E., and Jennifer S. Huisken. Expanding the Circle: Respecting the Past,
Preparing for the Future. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, 2002.
No Child Left behind 2001: Linking Title VII Indian, Native Hawaiian, and
Alaskan Native Education with Service Learning.
World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Accreditation
Handbook. WINHEC 2003. http://www.win-hec.org
PANEL REACTION ON SERVICE LEARNING
A. Dr. Danilo Pacoy
A mature higher education is not only measured only in terms of how many students have graduated, or how many of its graduates passed the board/ bar examinations or how qualified the teaching staff, or how big and furnished are the classrooms, or the number of books in the library, etc. but a mature higher education or a mature indigenous higher education is also measured on how strong the research and the service learning or extension program (to other schools that is called community outreach program, thus, finally I agree to the statement of Dr. Mizell that “ a good college affirms that service to others is a central part of education.”
Educators in the indigenous higher education must begin to think about the importance of innovative approaches to education and community service in the context of a new paradigm of learning. What is important for educators to have a larger, inclusive visio that seek to empower and unleash the creative potential of indigenous peoples. Solutions to difficult social problems often come from inspiration. A paradigm that fosters fear and limitation cannot produce inspired solutions.
Service learning is an educational process whereby faculty and students of an academic institution help the community themselves, in this case faculty and students help the indigenous community help themselves. There are a few extension models that can be used not withstanding the cultural differences, needs of varied learning styles and varied academic disciplines. I would like to mention some very few dictum in extension works:
- start from what the indigenous people have
- extension program is well-anchored when it is based on felt needs.
- remember that change is a slow process
- there is no short-circuiting when introducing change
- take more time in listening than in talking
-this calls for experiential- learning process
-hands-on activities are encouraged
4. teach them to be independent rather than dependent to you.
5. consider them as your partners, not your beneficiaries
- a partner is involved in the process and;
6. inculcate to their minds that the project you are pursuing is their project, not yours.
Consequently, the service learning activity will foster greater understanding between the academic institution and the indigenous people.
If I may add, in the Philippines, RA 9163, otherwise known as the National Service Training Program Act of 2001 (or NSTP), concretized the service learning in higher education and vocational technical education institutions in the country. This provides the youth, the students—whether indigenous or non-indigenous to participate in nation building. Just so illustrate to our partners from US, NSTP is a program, aimed at enhancing civic consciousness and defense preparedness among our students by developing the ethics of service by developing the ethics and patriotism. There are 3 program components namely, ROTC, Literacy Training service (LTS) and civic welfare training service (CWTS). CWTS is a program of activities contributing to the general welfare and betterment of life for the members of the country or the enhancement of the facilities especially devoted to improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation, morals, etc. of the citizenry. Each of the NSTP components shall be undertaken for an academic period of two semesters or for 54 to 90 training hours per semester.
Lessons I learned while working with the communities:
- universities can create access to higher learning, institutions for non-traditional groups while institutions for non-traditional groups while simultaneously reinforcing their commitment to excellence in education and research;
- to be effective community partners, universities must be “context- sensitive” that is to be aware of, understand and respect the communities in which they live and work
- universities have a special responsibility to respond to the needs of their surrounding communities and in economically distressed areas;
- although risk-taking is unavoidable as new collaborative lines open to previously undeserved communities, these risks are manageable and offer opportunities for institutional learning and;
- there are enormous reciprocal benefits to be derived from university engagement.
ISSUES AND CONCERNS:
- the undertaking is expensive
- it is sometimes risky
- sometimes Ips believe that they are being used/exploited and
- the IP communities are far aside from the bad road condition
In closing, let me say that service learning programs and civic engagement opportunites are also an important part of a campus- community relationship.
Thank you and good morning.
(March 13 A.M.)
1. DR. RIC EGUIA (College of Business Governance and Economics)
I would like to raise 3 important points for IP’s education. Be it basic education for the IP’s for higher education. First, the importance of social capital in achieving sustainable human development as education as our instrument. Second, the importance of cultural matrix in coming up with an appropriate education policy for the IP’s. Third, I would like to also cite the importance of knowledge management for the IP’s. For the social capital, I also made a study on the social capital of household welfare among indigenous peoples in Marilog district where the Matigsalog, Dyangan, Tiruray and Bagobos among others but I agree with the presentation of one of the presentors, Fr. Alejo on the importance of social capital. We have already developed social capital in a vertical dimension in a vertical scale as what you have presented. You have this collaboration among the National government agency and NGO’s in thr private sector in delivering higher education and basic education. But so far, I have encountered studies or even programs that will convert the social capital in a horizontal level among the community networks, community-based organizations. Instead what happened in my study, I found out the existing institutional infrastructure that will lead into global chain. Of course, that has something to do with education. Second, we have this social capital on these structural and cognitive dimensions. The structure that you have presented has something to do with the thrust which are the datus. We have these tribal leaders, the soldiers, so how can we nurture the thrust that will achieve sustainable education, networks, and even the so-called mutual supports. That is the reason why there are programs educational programs that flunk to different because of the lack of mutual support of the main thrust of the community. Second, yung tinatawag nating multi-cultural matrix on the study of different cultures. Coming up with this cultural matrix would help us thoroughly understand the different needs and demands and even education. Third, the knowledge management higher education of course promotes management of the IP’s knowledge. Thank you.
2. RENATO MASANGKAY
QUESTION: Fr. Alejo, clarification lang an oh dun sa mga highlights ng presentation nyo an o perspective on IP education. So paano po natin mapapalago o mapapaganda yung mga gaanong kaisipan o mga programa gayun kontrolado tayo ng gobyerno? Sabi natin, na kailangan ma-broaden, magkaroon tayo ng koneksyon kung saan tayo makapunta kung makatapos tayo ng pag-aaral so halimbawa po ang isang nakapagtapos ng ganitong kurso napunta sa isang lugar din so may connection na sila. So paano nating mapapalago yan kung tayo ay kontrolado ng gobyerno at yung mga nasa gobeyerno pa rin na kaisipan ang ipapalago o ipapatupad so wala pa ring lugar duon ang mga Lumad?
ANSWER: FR. ALBERT ALEJO
Renato, huwag tayo magpakontrol diba? Lakasan natin an ohng mga loob. Ako ay natutuwa sa kalakasan ng iyong loob dahil hindi mo na kailangan mag- Ingles. Lakasan ang loob at palakasin ang social movement. Kailangang mag-organisa tayo. Gusto ko kayong magsulat, mag-compose ng kanta at magsalita.
REPLY: RENATO MASANGKAY
Tama po yun, ang problema lang dun, so pag bumalik ka pala dun at magtrabaho sa gobyernong kaisipan, wala po kayong sweldo.
ANSWER: FR. ALBERT ALEJO
Kaya nga kailangang mag-organisa. Unang-una, dapat ang mga Lumad ay di mapaalis sa kanilang lupa. Kasi mahirap magsalita kapag nakalutang ka. Mas magandang magsalita yung nagsasalita ka na mayroon kang lupang tinutungtungan. That’s why I think we really need to make sure that the Lumads will not be removed from their lands. Ganun, therefore people should move, should organize, should strengthen the voice of the Lumads. We don’t necessarily taking up arms. Some people are saying, if the Lumads should use arms, the government will listen to them. Build a different kind of movement that doesn’t necessarily taking up arms but with strengthening our voice.
3. PROF. JUSE LYN PABUAYA
QUESTION: I have a question for Dr. Barretto, I would just like to ask if the IP students in the Bukidnon State College are joining the regular students or you have a special curriculum for them.
ANSWER: DR. BARETTO
The students are mixed with the other non-IP students. So they are enrolled in the same curriculum same as a non-IP student. So education is integrated except for the Binukid class that is for special one that we have. And only for those who are interested but for now, that is integrated in the curriculum for the social science division.
4. DARIO LANTOY (Mindoro)
REFLECTION: Ito yung reflection ko mula kahapon hanggang ngayon tungkol sa diskriminasyon about culture and education. Nakita ko kahapon yung diskriminasyon na nabanggit. Bago dumating ang mga Kastila, ang Pilipino ay may sarili ng pamamahala. Meron na silang sariling pamamaraan, mayroon na silang scientist, mayroon na sila kung paano paulanin at papainitin. So nadiscriminate na tayo ng Katila kahit noon pa. Isa pang diskriminasyon na nakita ko ay yung may mga mababang pinag-aralan ay nadidiscriminate ng may mga mataas na pinag-aralan. Sa kultura naman, ang Pilipino kabilang ang mga nitibo, mga katutubong mamamayan ay may sarili ng kultura—may sarili din silang kultura. Ang hindi ko lang maintindihan ay kung bakit na an o mismo sa sarili nating bansa ay gumagamit tayo ng foreign language na hindi naman tayo lahat nakakaintindi. Kaya nagiging magulo pa rin ang bansa. Sa edukasyon naman, paano ba natin imumulat ang mga kabataang Lumad. Nakikita natin na imulat sila para magkaroon ng higher education subalit hanggang saan ang pagmulat? Ito po an o matuto lamang na sumulat at bumasa o kilalanin ang sariling kultura at epekto ng iba’t-ibang bagay na dumarating sa ating bansa.
5. MR. JOEL VIRTUDAZO
QUESTION: So much for the sentiments and expressions shared by some members of the assembly. First, I would like to commend all the varied information from our plenary speakers. I’m from SPC, and that school is known for nursing and medical education but as the head of humanities and education division, our school is also interested in the extension program. I’m also interested on this but I am more interested on aspects that have direct contribution coming from teachers especially in the academe. Do you have recommending policies to CHED and DepEd with regard to the teacher education program because right now, these programs have major changes in the curriculum of the education department particularly on the learning experiences courses. So the common students have struggles in the learning experiences course and I don’t think that the changes can be immediately adapted with those in Indigenous students who are in the teacher education program. Now my question is: Is there a plan or a movement strategized by your agencies to train them in their facilitating events, facilitating learning experiences because in some discussions of Fr. Alejo, I would agree that we should not delimit the context of the exposure, we have to be multi-cultural. But on the other hand, it could also be a threat in the solidarity of commitment to uphold some of their cultural practices from the Linguistics to the sociological manifestations of these cultural practices. So do we have policy movement on that? Second, I am threatened because I also teach in other colleges. I had been to Ateneo de Manila University last February 1 to 3. I attended the conference on “Forging Identities in Literature that is totally coming up with an undertaking between the relationship of literature and social sciences. There is an international movement spearheaded by Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. Singapore about some topics. In SPC, Philippine literature was established and replaced by world literature. You know the threat. When my desire is to retain Phil. Literature and focus more in the folk literature because there is an imbalance in the Philippines literary texts. Mostly, the literatures of Luzon are recognized. And that is also the movement of Bukidnon. There should be an introduction of folk literature. So may we know if there is an opportunity for you that you incorporated this in the program to make CHED and oher government organizations focusing on education to review the curriculum because I think there is already a conflict right now? The new changes somehow can be threatening in our cultural preservation on our commitment to preserve our culture and values regeneration among IP students.
In answer to the question, although we really have not recommended to the CHED our experiences but I see changes in the curriculum that you are talking about. There are really changes now and one of the changes I see is immersion which is required of the BE-Ed and BS-Ed student immersion in the community but I saw a problem. In the CHED, it is offered as 3 units. What can you get from the 3 units these students will go the community, they will go around for 1 to 2 days that is not much in immersion. There is not much learning than get so I saw the problem in the scheduling in the subject immersion education. The program was finished in 1993; CHED has incorporated the experience of immersion in teaching training of teachers only since 2 years ago. Last year, they only started having immersion among BS-Ed and BEED after the program has been finished. As to the conservation or preservation of culture, it’s not CHED, it is NCCA that is encouraging the organization or the SIKAT schools which we have one night now in Lake Sebu and yet, DepEd would like the SIKAT schools to incorporate some of the subjects of the DepEd into Sikat schools so that when they graduate, they can proceed up to higher education. Right now, we are working on that program in incorporating some of the Dep-Ed required subjects into that Sikat School.
ANSWER: DR. REMEDIOS BARETTO
As far as BSC is concerned, whenever we like to incorporate changes like what you said about the Bukidnon culture. We have Philippine literature for example, and we would like to include the Bukidnon literature as far as this is concerned. We would have that proposed to the Board of Trustees if they are going to approve it or not. Most often, changes in the curriculum are approved by the Board of Trustees.
ANSWER: FR. ALBERT ALEJO
I think us really to sit down more seriously on policy recommendations. I think it deserves a different conference. But right now from the Mindanawon experience, we branched out to the IIPE. Now, in the beginning DepEd not CHED was not very keen on this because they were saying DepEd has a standard to maintain. So don’t pull down the standard. Later on, they also realized and we also realized that there is a way of working with the government in such a way that some of the wisdom that we get from the IP communities can be integrated in the curriculum accompanied by the production of indigenous materials for instruction. I think it is important and there is a way that these things can be accommodated. I noticed that at the moment, probably, the government education system can accommodate cultural aspects like dances, artifacts, stories, but when we take the Lumad struggle as a whole, then we really have to integrate human rights, political rights, cultural rights and land rights of the people. I wonder if the government or CHED would become right within the curriculum teaching the Lumads have been discriminated against that their lands were destroyed and the existing lands that are with them should be given to them. I wonder if the DepEd and the CHED can go that far maybe not easily. And that’s why we really need to transform our insights into policy accompanied by strong Lumad socio-cultural movements. But in the mean time, our task I suppose is to create some of these materials. I think as I have mentioned, we tried to publish this book. This could be used in instruction but you know somebody has to pay. And people would rather get it for free. Maybe we should have some funds to distribute materials. We need ethnographic map of Mindanao, where you will know the land of the Lumads, we don’t have that, we don’t have posters indicating Lumad heroes, weavers, artifacts, Lumad artists, we don’t know. And textbooks are written in Manila and very very little is included in terms of Mindanao history and little things about Mindanao very little is about the IP’s. So should we blame Manila? No, we should do our homework. Let us produce textbooks written with the perspectives of the Lumads and the IP.
PRESENTATION OF INDIGENOUS HIGHER EDUCATION EXPERIENCES
A. Dr. Jovita Felongco (NDMU)
I am here to present our university’s experience in IP higher education. Let me present to you the ATTCC, NDMU’s program in handling IP Higher Education. It means Accelerated Training of Teachers for Cultural Communities.
ATTCC’s objectives are as follows: (1) To evolve an innovative training program for teacher education in the cultural minority areas, (2) To establish centers for training cultural pluralistic teaching and (3) To promote better understanding among cultural pluralistic group.
ATTCC has the specific objectives. First, is to train and develop cultural minority teachers. Second, is to develop strategies for teaching in the cultural pluralistic setting, and finally is to develop native instructional materials and to evolve a prototype curriculum for teaching.
There are three phases for the ATTCC program. The 1st phase is the experimental phase. It was implemented from the year 1978 to 1982 and we had 60 graduates then. The second phase expanded under the support of UNICEF which was implemented during the year 1983 to 1987. This phase produced 88 graduates from NDMU. Finally, the CIDA Phase, the third phase which was implemented from the year 1987 to 1991 producing 74 graduates. So during the whole program, ATTCC produced 222 graduates.
The curriculum emphasized on anthro-social logical dimension of education. It has a holistic-integrative approach. Moreover, the curriculum is practicum oriented and is thrived in a social laboratory context among diverse ethnic groups.
Its program beneficiaries include Region X (Bukidnon), Region XI (Davao City, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental), Region XII (South Cotabato, Saranggani), Sultan Kudarat, ARMM and Region IVB (Mindoro Oriental) and the 15 ethnic groups (majority were Maguindanaon) from 27 learning centers.
We have a criterion for admission for the interested IP applicants. The aspiring applicant should be a non-HS or even elementary graduate, he or she should have outstanding work experiences, proper attitude towards work, and teaching commitment and residing in the community.
Our financial support team includes (FAPE) Funds for Assistance to Private Education , UNICEF (United Nations Children Fund), EDPITAF through NDEA Educational Project Implementing Task Force, CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency).
The breakdown of the status of the graduates are as follows: 13.21% got the Master’s Degree, 2.8% were able to pursue their Ph.D.’s, 89.6% were connected with educational institutions, 10.4% school administrators, 4.7% supervisors, 94.3% in the government service and 89.6% have permanent status of employment.
The ATTCC project made a great impact on our students. In fact, 96 % of the graduates have high degree of service to their own communities, there were personal testimonies, their pre-service training under the ATTCC program afforded them the opportunity to rise in the social ladder, and their ATTCC training influenced their teaching practices tremendously improved their human relations, they were also able to adjust to different personalities and tribes they worked with and finally they become sensitive and sympathetic to the needs of their people.
During the whole program we have acquired various learning. We find out that IPs can be catalysts to the development of their own people if given chance to be educated and experience in development. We have also found out that educational disparities among the IPs in Mindanao can be bridged by innovative programs in education.
Unfortunately, the program was stopped. There were a few factors behind this. First, the program is expensive as this needs continuous support of funding agencies. Second, the providing education opportunities for the IPs are done by other NGOs and government agencies, Third, NDMU’s programs are now focused on OSY, AHEAD, CESTeP, ALS, ECE, BEAM, Sponsorship and CHILD. Finally, NDMU also is focused right now in the reproductive health of the IPs.
B. Dr. Remedios Barretto (Bukidnon State College)
Bukidnon State College lies in the heartland of Mindanao, specifically in the City of Malayabalay, Province of Bukidnon. As a higher education institution, Bukidnon State College strives to offer quality training and education to all its clientele. It has the reputation of being one of the best teacher training institutions in Mindanao.
Bukidnon State College started in 1924 as a two-year high school offering normal courses and in 1928 it attained full-fledge status as a teacher institution offering a four-year normal course. One characteristic feature of the student population then was the numerical dominance of the native inhabitants, the Bukidnons. Today, the composition of the school student population is multi-ethnic. However, the school continues to provide learning opportunities to the indigenous students.
The following are the Bukidnon State College’ indigenous higher education experiences that highlight service learning: 1958 – The school accommodated the Muslim scholars, mostly Maranaos under a four-year educational program for the Muslims. They were called pensionados, scholars supported by the government. Although the program ended four decades ago, the Muslim parents continue to send their children to the college.
Scholarships for the members of the indigenous groups particularly the Bukidnons were also offered. Today, this scholarship is known as the Cultural Community Scholarship. One other scholarship that targets the Bukidnon students (although this is also open for non-Bukidnon students) is the Turo Nagata Foundation Based from the number of Bukidnons who availed of the two kinds of scholarship from school years 2000-2001 to 2006-2007,369 Bukidnon students were granted the Cultural Community Scholarship and 67, the Turo Nagata Foundation. ACCESS - The school also links with other institutions that offer opportunities for the Bukidnons and other indigenous students to be exposed not only to classroom situations but also on off-campus experiences. One of these is the project called ACCESS. Two Talaandig (one of the tribes of Bukidnon) students represented the Talaandig tribe and BSC in Northern Illinois University to attend a one and a half months of an ACCESS program. The theme of the program was “Bridging the Gap: Engaging in New Generation in the Southern Philippines in Conflict Resolution and Inter-Ethnic Dialogue.”
Community Service and Extension - Learning for the indigenous groups in the community is also extended by the school. From 1980 to 1986, one of the faculty members of the school, Mrs. Rosita A. Isidro, conducted Adult Literacy Classes for the Bukidnon community in Can-ayan, one of the barangays of the city of Malaybalay . Her students were middle aged-Bukidnon adults and the Binukid vernacular was used as the medium of instruction. The classes expanded to four more barangays until her retirement. She was one of the first Metrobank Awardees. On September 25, 1985 , she received a Metrobank Educators Award. Among the 600 nominees, she was the only one who had an experience in teaching the indigenous tribes of Bukidnon.
A similar community service is being undertaken by the Language and Letters faculty members in barangay Canayan that begun in 2004. But this time, the clienteles are young children.
C. Fr. Albert Alejo (Mindanawon)
I have a video here on our project. I’ll just offer a few things on our experience with the Mindanawon Initiatives for Cultural Dialogue. We have a number of programs one of them is scholarship in college. Right now, we are supporting 20 college students from different tribes. We also have our graduates already. Mindanawon is a very small initiative and some of my thoughts on Indigenous education have already been published here in the quality teacher magazine. Mindanawon also publishes a number of books. This book is called “Sikaming Lumad Bagong Panitikan ng Katutubong Mindanao.” This is a collection of poems, essays written by ordinary kids from different tribes and they are written in their own languages as translations in Filipino so that it could be used in Hekasi, etc. My study in Mt. Apo culture and politics in the context of their environment. Now that is meant to accentuate myself dili man gud ko Lumad kayo. Pero didto ko matawo sa Cagayan de Oro. So ang title ko an o ay “Lumad ay Pag-aralin, Huwag Lang Pag-aralan.” Don’t just study the Lumads, let them study as well.
So higher education in the context of indigenous people community. And when I say pag-aralin, don’t just give literary programs. I think they deserve to be supported up to higher levels of education. So I think we really have a lot to do. So what I would like to offer now is some of my role reflections. I’m sure you can imagine the little things that we’re doing. We have a dormitory for the indigenous groups and they go to other schools. Some are in Ateneo, RMC, Holy Cross, UM and even PWC. Their courses are Education, Social Work, Political Science, Psychology, Computer Science, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fine Arts. What I like to do now is just to offer a few thoughts on how to rethink what we are doing. I got this from the Mabuhay magazine in an advertisement. It says around the world today, not many people are getting ahead. Instead, most people are just getting by and there are many have fallen by the wayside or about to fall behind financially. With the rapid development in technology and the twist and turn of the world events and this small economic situation more and more people are now caught in the world of uncertainty. I think part of that would be our indigenous sisters and brothers. Continuing, many more expected to be trapped is an endless cycle financial frustration and bleak future. And if they don’t shift their paradigm far enough and quickly learn new skills especially entrepreneurial skills. Unless what is prepared to open his mind now and is changed consciously he is likely to put his future both mentally and financially in great jeopardy so this plainly saying that there is tremendous amt. of change going on and many people are being left behind. I guess some of them our brothers and sisters in groups illiterate in the 21st century are not those who cannot read or write. Illiterates are those stubborn to learn and re-learn new skills. So that’s a different kind of illiteracy. Those only stick to traditional knowledge. Now that is a challenge and many of our students in higher learning are facing the challenge. They learn new skills and I think even indigenous groups would like to learn how to use computers powerpoint, flash, use the MP3 diba? That’s why some of them would like to go abroad. Now we really have to face this. We might be forming programs and for whom? They’re all gone. This is a big challenge and I really sincerely think that we need to face this squarely. According to the human development report of the United Nations, globalization, and all these things can threaten national, local, and of course indigenous identities. The solution it says is not to retreat to conservatism and isolationist, nationalism or “indigenousism”, it is to design multicultural policies to promote diversity and pluralism. As sense of identity and belonging to a group which shared values and culture is important for all individuals, we need to belong to a group and yet we realized each individual can identify with many different groups at the same time. So I think that is the situation right new.
Sino man o ang pure na Bagobo? People I would say, I’m 75%, although I’m Bagobo, my mother is a Cebuano. So I’d like to continue to invite you to reflect on this because something we feel are we destroying the culture of the Indigenous groups by sending them to college? I’ve been accused of that and I’m sure some of those who help people the Lumads to go to college are accused of destroying their culture. Sabi nila hindi na babalik yan. Dapat hanggang literacy program lang. O kaya hanggang high school dun lang kasi kapag pinag-college mo na, wala na hindi na babalik yan. So let’s face that question squarely.
That’s a little bit of introduction so personal involvement with IP may be in the study of the Manobo tribes in Mt. Apo. I stayed there for 1 and ½ years, then, we have this challenge of life-long learning today. There’s a standard in continued education but there’s also a contemporary challenge in age of uncertainty. We’re educating people now but the world is different from ours. I have some idea of education and I may have some idea on indigenous culture. And I tell the Lumads, you’re moving away from your culture. But who am I to say that is your culture and that you should stick to your culture. Who am I to say that? Medyo may problema. There’s also generational gap—so should the elders tell the kids now, you should only study the Manobo dance? And don’t imitate the “Spaghetting pababa pataas?” I don’t know. Now there’s a particular challenge especially for IP because of the identity struggle for solidarity. Now, here I want to jump to the other matrix—to the other program Lumad identity. Now what I would like to do is to reveal the complexity of the Lumad situation and hopefully we could situate the educational objective within the whole Lumad struggle. The 2nd point, the Lumad would say we are Filipino citizens right? Yes, then you need a cedula, residence certificate, ID, you need to be included in the census but some of the Lumads are not even included in the census because when the Census people come to the village they say “Brgy. Capt. How many Lumads are there in the mountain? You go there its too far. You make an estimate for me.” You see? They are not even included so part of our educational objective is citizenship as Filipinos getting ID’s, having a passport if you are going abroad and that is already a struggle. To feel that you are a member of the Filipino nation and then you have an ID, you have a residence certificate. I know for some people that itself if a major operation. Now if we stick to just literacy program then we cannot carry them forward to the concrete visibility of citizenship. Sometimes, the Lumads would say we’re not just Filipinos, we are IP, we are Igorots in Luzon, and we are special. Good but then at a certain point, the Lumads would say we’re Mindanawon, we are not Igorots. The problem with the Igorots is that they are well-versed with international Conferences on IP’s but we are left behind. There are more Igorot professionals than Lumad professionals. There are very, very few NGO’s in Mindanao run by the Lumads whereas in Cordillera most of the NGO’s are run by the IP. There is something wrong with the way NGO’s and churches have helped the IP in Mindanao. We have not produced enough Lumad professionals. Now when we say the Lumads are Mindanawon, then they are with the Muslims because they are also Mindanawon. But at the certain point, the Lumads would say “Hey, hey, we’re not just Mindanawons because we are different from the Moros. They don’t eat pork, we do. Mga ganyan an oh? Now, therefore in part of the educational approach program we have would be the assertion of being Lumads different from the settlers, different from the Moros. We need to integrate this. Do the Lumads really understand the Moros MILF? Why are they struggling? That is another element in the educational agenda at the certain point the Lumads would say, “Why do you call us Lumad? By the way, Lumad is a Visayan term---We are Manobo, We are Tiruray. “Lumad is a new term. It is a generic term, diba? Don’t say Lumad guitar—say Manobo Sauroy. At certain point, they would say, we are Indigenous organized groups. As indigenous organized groups, they should have an e-mail address, mailing address, fax number. You don’t require a fax number for a tribe but for our organized indigenous groups, you need a fax number, e-mail address and even cellphone for the leaders. And maybe they should learn English because otherwise they cannot propose to funding agencies. So at this certain point in this holistic struggle of the Lumads, they need to learn English. They need to learn how to propose fundings---a proposal to funding agencies. Otherwise, they will rely to the non-IP groups. “Please write for us a funding proposal—a project proposal.” I really take pity on Lumad leaders who do not have load for their cell phones. They can’t say that they will be late. So using the cell phone, the e-mail and the internet, should be a part of their skills to be learned by the indigenous people if they want to enter to a holistic, realistic struggle in the modern world, where they have to confront mining companies invading their own lands. I suppose some of you might go into geology, anthropology, computer science. Ancestral domain--- we may belong to the same tribe but we can still be rivals in grabbing a piece of land. But you need geodetic survey to reclaim your lands. That’s why Lumad education really needs a lot of skills. It would Indigenous education within the entire struggle of the Lumads. Right now, some of the leaders of the Lumads are approaching me on how to insist their Lumad agenda in the MILF Peace Talks because the Moros and the government might agree to sign a document in lowering the halt that the lands of the Lumads are not given away. In other words, we need to study the local Indigenous culture but we also need to study the mind of the Philippine government, the Bangsamoros, the MILF, the MNLF, tama ba? Dumadami ang problema noh? But be realistic. So I suppose as the host agent, host communities, sometimes the Lumads will side with the Christian settlers of both of them are affected with the same development project. Sometimes, it is a family and finally as an individual. Each individual Lumad has her own struggle. For example, you would say I’m 75% T’boli so I deserve to be given scholarship, right? Tapos sabihin mo “But your tribe does not have a lot title yet so you don’t deserve.” No, no this is a different struggle.
That is why I offer some perspective principles here. I think Lumad education especially higher education should offer inner and collective self- confidence. I think that is the primary. And in the face of uncertainty, I think one objective of our Lumad or IP education is the achievement of self- confidence. Yun bang pagtuo sa kaugalingon, diba? Kay in general, maulaw man. Self- confidence, at the same time, collective communal confidence---confidence in facing the future. We are not educating them for the past. We are educating them for the future. And therefore, we need a kind of self-confidence in the future. Now, remember one elder in Mt. Apo when he was studying in Grade 1, the Ilokano teacher ask him, “What’s your name?” “Lumiyok”“Ang pangit naman! Ano yun?” “Lumiyok” “Ah, let’s change that to Romeo. From now on, you will be called Romeo that’s better than Lumiyok.” You changed the names—then you erase the confidence of the individual in his own culture, in his own tribe Now, those among you have Christian names please find your own nature name also in addition. Let’s retrieve your own belief of your tribe.
Education for multiple self- determination. As we have seen, the self in self- determination is multiple. You can be a Mindanawon, you can be a Lumad, you can be Tiruray all at the same time. In saying your Mindanawon, your one with the Muslims. In saying, you’re Lumad, you say you’re different from the Muslims. In saying I’m the owner of the land you are separating yourself from another tribe. It does not mean you’re “balimbing.” It just that in the complicated world, identity is also complicated and therefore solidarity would also be complex.
Now education for cultural regeneration. I think the word is cultural, regeneration not preservation. We don’t want to put cultures in the bottled formalin. We are living people. We don’t live in museums behind glasses. Ako Tagalog, you can’t force me to wear Barong Tagalog everyday, diba? So there should be freedom, so cultural regeneration is not cultural preservation na butangan nato ug preservative diba? It should grow and it should be in different forms, new ways of expressing you identity as Manobo, as Tiruray, as B’laan—there are different ways.
Now education for gender partnership. So I think this is important in many tribes in some way. The women, the girls are not treated properly. I can go on and on this issue but I think gender is an important issue also. I think formal education is for social capital also. It is where the development of the social capital and social movement. Social capital is a social network. Generally, people who helped the Lumads in education would sign new contracts. You should go back to your village. I think we should re-think that kind of policy. Why? Because there may not be enough opportunities in your own village diba? Practical ah, I don’t think we should jail the Lumads in their own village that will make us the outsiders---their permanent bridge to the outside world. And I think it is unfair. By social network, I mean this when you graduate in elementary Grade 6 and you move around maybe the tricycle driver is your classmate, maybe the person in the sari-sari store was your former classmate and you have expanded your world a little bit. If you happen to or if you manage to finish high school, maybe the treasurer of the cooperative was your classmate. Your fellow basketball player when you were in high school right? So your world has expanded. So if you finished college---ah the municipal counselor used to be your fellow choir member diba? And maybe you can work in DepEd and in DENR in etc. Now if don’t allow the Lumads to up to college or even higher than that, than their social network remains narrow. I think one benefit for formal education is that meet other classmates from other tribes, from other places. So that when you graduate, you have connection __ social capital is conection. In other words, I don’t expect that all of the graduates should return to their village. I would wish that some of them should transfer to another tribe and help the poorer tribe. Some of them should infiltrate the DepEd even the national office of Duterte, so that they can change the curriculum and the mentality of the DepEd and the CHED. So some of them should join to become leaders and directors of the DENR because we keep on complaining to the DepEd, “You don’t understand our tribe. The problem is you don’t give us graduates. So some of you infiltrate the DENR, or the local government. Some of you should file candidacy to become a senator--- a big ambition why not? Party list whatever. Now some of you should go back. Maybe some of you should enter into the other work and then maybe after a few years. I’m going back to my tribe. See? Some of you will really go back. Please let not all of you should go away. And how do we do this? By increasing educational opportunities and the number of graduates. Now, what use to happen was this? We have many few scholars and therefore each one is very precious. He or she should go back kay very precious man. Now if we can have more scholars graduating, you can say some of them, should go back, some of them should go to the poorer tribe and then you will notice that the Lumads will burden their network, their connection, their social capital and some of them are actually should become leaders of social movement. Right now please your education should allow you to enter movements. Don’t just look for jobs. Be leaders in women’s movement, in indigenous movements, in educational movements and in environmental movements. Please become leaders. Basta move! Of course, multi-cultural education, please study different cultures and finally, a number of my proposals. For one, in our education program, let’s introduce the modern facilities but we should also capitalize on the vernacular pedagogies, public rituals, don’t. Let us nor loose them. Public rituals mga irarang, gathering around the fire.
There is also educational event. Support the supporters. I think the government or the solidarity group should support the supporters even those who are not Lumads. Like si Madam kanina, you are mentoring, guiding the Lumads and let’s support them. Attend to loopholes. Sometimes, there is scholarship in college but the graduate in high school could not pass the entrance exam. Maybe what is needed is a Summer Bridging Program. Let’s look at the gaps. Basig needed lang ba. Maybe that is maybe more crucial than the whole high school program.
Physical and emotional needs. Ma- inlove man gud mo noh? Some of our scholars have headaches and even heartaches. They fall inlove, they have crushes, they don’t know what to do. I think the part of our education program understands that you have monthly menstruation that should be part of the scholarship grant. But that’s reality. A counseling on love courtship and build a strategic structures, big classrooms for those who are studying. I propose the construction of decent Lumad dormitories. From our experience, I think it is very important to have dorms for the scholars because when they are gathered in one place. Then they build their social capital. They become more organized. They got to know their tribes and you can have other weekend programs, you can have summer programs together you can have sem- break programs like theater programs or exposure to another tribe etc. Bahala na magka-inlovay sila. Now, I really propose the construction of Lumad dorm—the Lumad dorm that understands the Lumads. The dormitory wick have dictionaries of different tribes ad they have drums and gongs can practice their music there. I propose for the construction of special Lumad high school and generate it for the IP’s. In the end, the bottom line I think is this a deep respect for the humanity of our brothers and sisters. And education should not limit freedom. It should expand freedom and I sincerely believe that even if you expose them our worlds, if you invite the datu, to keep on reminding them, if you expose them to other issues, the mining issues, the human rights issues, they will find a way, wherever they are to serve the concerns of the IP’s. And I think that is a sign of respect. I think education for the Lumads really requires a deep respect for the individual for the tribe and for the whole Lumad community. Thank you very much.
MARCH 13 (P.M.)
1. MS. MERCEDES ALAN
For how many days that we have been discussing the experiences of IP youths given to us by the students, now we realized how hard the life of the IP’s are talking about economic crisis as well as poverty affecting especially their education that most of them can’t go to school because of this hindrance. Now, I’ve been teaching in this university for 25 years and this is my observation---that during the entrance exam, there are very few IP’s who are availing the entrance exam but I found out that there were no programs. There is no program in such a way to see to it that these students who failed in the entrance exam will be catered as to guided as to how where they will go after they have been failed. Kasi knowing that there IP’s did not know kung ano yung mga agencies. Now, my suggestion will be there should be an office which will cater to this problem. Rather allowing these failed students in the entrance exam to go back to the community wherein they will be recipients of these people who are trying to destroy the peace and order in the countryside and also they will be recipient of this drug addiction. Why? Because they have no land to till and with that age of puberty, they are not capable of doing it especially that they are only mingling in the mainstream and it is a shame on their part to do the daro and plowing if they don’t have a family. So it would be good for us to look in advance to the future of these youth who will fail in the entrance exam. One of my suggestions is why not give them the chance to undergo first year college and afterwards screen their grades if they are really capable of a 4-year course and then we decide to do driving courses or vocational technology rather than contributing to their identity that they are not bright students.
REPLY: DR. EDNA JALOTJOT
If I make a summary of what you have presented, you are suggesting to USEP to think about some admission policies so that we could increase the access to college education for students who finished high school who belong to the IP communities. In addition, aside from the admission policies to USEP, to improve its students’ service so that there are enhancements that could be introduced.
REPLY: MS. MERCEDES ALAN
I just want to add a little. I have already done this of asking consideration from the Registrar’s office that most of those who failed then I asked to consider them.
REPLY: DR. EDNA JALOTJOT
It should not be a favor; it should be a strategic move on the part of the university. Cause otherwise, the purpose would be forfeited if you say it’s a favor. If you remember, I mentioned yesterday that whatever service we are giving should not be watered down. Right, it should not be a favor. It has to be strategic and based on certain data and research.
This is just in addition to what my colleague Dr. Mondejar was saying that the university is studying the curriculum but I want to see also integrated not only the Mandaris but also the Lumads because the Mandaris are for the Moslems only so I want the Lumads to be also be integrated in the curriculum.
ANSWER: DR. SURLITA SUMUGAT
I just want to clarify the idea bought out by Madam Mercy regarding the IP examinees who failed the entrance exam of the university. I believe that no matter how we sympathize with the IP’s, we cannot sacrifice the standard of the university because that is the policy that you can’t enroll in USEP unless you have passed the entrance exam. So considering also the background, the training of the IP’s , we give them, the 1st batch of the Pamulaan, we gave them a bridging program and enrichment program before taking the entrance exam. We have the EBP which is initiated by CAS. And then for Math and Science, we took the Pamulaan people did the bridging program so that they could qualify the entrance exam.
 Aragon ‘s study used the Inventory of Learning Processes, the Weinstein, Palmer, and Schulte Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, and the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test; consent was secured; readability of each instrument was assessed by three American Indian/Alaska Native adult educators, and explanations and dictionaries given to the students (4).
 Out of the fourteen skills assessed, only four were identified to be at the “moderate or average” ability level (information processing, self-testing, and use of study aids, methodical study, and elaborative processing). Two of these skill areas bordered “low/moderate” ability (select main ideas and fact retention. Six of these skill areas were identified to be at the “low” ability level (attitude, sue of test strategies, concentration, level of anxiety, time management, and deep processing). Further, the results identified these students as reflective learners rather than impulsive. Characterized by low error rates and high response times, they based their responses on careful thought and search. They showed a “watch-then-do” or “listen-then-do” learning style. Finally, four variables fell into the low category—attitude, anxiety, concentration, and motivation, all of which impact a student’s ability to be a successful learner (Aragon 7-9).
 They are usually affiliated with Student Affairs units; they operate on low budgets usually from federally mandated programs; they receive strong public support; “high profile” programs receive a great deal of media attention; many programs are marginal to others in the university; and many of these programs are designed to “buffer” students from the impact of the larger university environment (124).
 These organizational/structural changes include (1) new colleges, new departments, new degrees, and new courses, (2) new curriculum requirements for all students, (3) active recruitment of minority faculty and support for their tenure, (4) development of formal and consequential relationships between minority communities and the university, (5) admission, tuition, financial aid and course delivery policies that make the university an option for a wider range of students, (6) multicultural workshops/training/orientation for all faculty and incentives for using culturally appropriate ways of teaching, learning, evaluating, and doing research, (7) and changes in the physical environment such as art and architecture (Barnhardt 125-26).
 In UAF’s response to Native American concerns, terms such as transitional and maintenance indicate aims of bilingual programs, while subtractive aims of Anglo-conformity orientation and additive aims of inter-cultural orientation provide other options.